Preview

Евразийский Кардиологический Журнал

Расширенный поиск

Евразийские клинические рекомендации по диагностике и лечению желудочковых нарушений ритма сердца и профилактике внезапной сердечной смерти (2022)

https://doi.org/10.38109/2225-1685-2022-4-6-67

Полный текст:

Аннотация

Рекомендации ЕАК отражают точку зрения ЕАК и были подготовлены после тщательного изучения научных и медицинских данных, имеющихся на момент их публикации. ЕАК не несут ответственности в случае какого-либо противоречия, несоответствия и / или неоднозначности между Рекомендациями ЕАК и любыми другими официальными рекомендациями или руководствами, выпущенными соответствующими органами общественного здравоохранения, в частности, в отношении правильного использования медицинских или терапевтических стратегий. Медицинским работникам рекомендуется в полной мере учитывать Рекомендации ЕАК при оценке своего клинического суждения, а также при определении и реализации профилактических, диагностических или терапевтических медицинских стратегий. Тем не менее, Рекомендации ЕАК никоим образом не отменяют индивидуальную ответственность медицинских работников за принятие надлежащих и точных решений с учетом состояния здоровья каждого пациента и в консультации с этим пациентом и, при необходимости и / или необходимости, опекуна пациента. Рекомендации ЕАК не освобождают медицинских работников от полного и тщательного рассмотрения соответствующих официальных обновленных рекомендаций или руководств, выпущенных компетентными органами общественного здравоохранения, для рассмотрения каждого медицинского случая в свете современных научно обоснованных рекомендаций в соответствии с их этическими и профессиональными обязательствами. Кроме того, медицинский работник обязан проверять действующие правила и положения, касающиеся лекарств и медицинских изделий, на момент назначения по рецепту.

Об авторах

С. П. Голицын
ФГБУ «НМИЦ кардиологии имени Е.И. Чазова» Минздрава России
Россия

Голицын Сергей Павлович, д.м.н., профессор, руководитель, руководитель отдела клинической электрофизиологии и рентгенохирургических методов лечения нарушений ритма сердца

3-я Черепковская, 15 а, г. Москва 121552



М. В. Костюкевич
ФГБУ «НМИЦ кардиологии имени Е.И. Чазова» Минздрава России
Россия

Костюкевич Марина Валентиновна, к.м.н., научный сотрудник отдела клинической электрофизиологии и рентгенохирургических методов лечения нарушений ритма сердца, НИИ кардиологии им. А.Л. Мясникова

3-я Черепковская, 15 а, г. Москва 121552



Л. Ю. Лайович
ФГБУ «НМИЦ кардиологии имени Е.И. Чазова» Минздрава России
Россия

Лайович Лада Юрьевна, к.м.н., научный сотрудник, отдел клинической электрофизиологии и рентгенохирургических методов лечения нарушений ритма сердца

3-я Черепковская, 15 а, г. Москва 121552



Н. Ю. Миронов
ФГБУ «НМИЦ кардиологии имени Е.И. Чазова» Минздрава России
Россия

Миронов Николай Юрьевич, к.м.н., старший научный сотрудник, отдел клинической электрофизиологии и рентгенохирургических методов лечения нарушений ритма сердца

3-я Черепковская, 15 а, г. Москва 121552



Н. А. Миронова
ФГБУ «НМИЦ кардиологии имени Е.И. Чазова» Минздрава России
Россия

Миронова Наталия Александровна, к.м.н., доцент, старший научный сотрудник, отдел клинической электрофизиологии и рентгенохирургических методов лечения нарушений ритма сердца

3-я Черепковская, 15 а, г. Москва 121552



М. Д. Уцумуева
ФГБУ «НМИЦ кардиологии имени Е.И. Чазова» Минздрава России
Россия

Уцумуева Мадина Джаватовна, к.м.н., врач-кардиолог, отдел клинической электрофизиологии и рентгенохирургических методов лечения нарушений ритма сердца

3-я Черепковская, 15 а, г. Москва 121552



Д. Р. Хусяинова
ФГБУ «НМИЦ кардиологии имени Е.И. Чазова» Минздрава России
Россия

Хусяинова Диана Рамисовна, врач-кардиолог, отдел клинической электрофизиологии и рентгенохирургических методов лечения нарушений ритма сердца

3-я Черепковская, 15 а, г. Москва 121552



Н. Б. Шлевков
ФГБУ «НМИЦ кардиологии имени Е.И. Чазова» Минздрава России
Россия

Шлевков Николай Борисович, к.м.н., ведущий научный сотрудник, лаборатория интервенционных методов диагностики и лечения нарушений ритма, проводимости сердца и синкопальных состояний, отдел клинической электрофизиологии и рентгенохирургических методов лечения нарушений ритма сердца

3-я Черепковская, 15 а, г. Москва 121552



Б. Ч. Базаров
Дирекция Международных Кардиологический Центров – Международный Кардиологический Центр
Туркменистан

Базаров Байрам Чарыкулыевич, заведующий отделением хирургической аритмологии, рентген-эндоваскулярный хирург, сердечный электрофизиолог

Ашхабад



В. А. Азизов
1-ый Азербайджанский Медицинский Университет
Азербайджан

Азизов Васадат Алиевич, д.м.н., профессор, заведующий кафедрой внутренних болезней

Баку



Э. Д. Джишамбаев
Национальный Центр кардиологии и терапии имени академика Мирсаида Миррахимова при Министерстве Здравоохранения Кыргызской Республики
Кыргызстан

Джишамбаев Эрнест Джумакадырович, д.м.н., профессор, заведующий отделением нарушения ритма сердца



Н. У. Закиров
Республиканский специализированный научно-практический медицинский центр Кардиологии
Узбекистан

Закиров Нодир Узуевич, д.м.н., руководитель отделения
аритмий сердца



Д. Б. Гончарик
Республиканский научно-практический центр «Кардиология» МЗ Республики Беларусь
Беларусь

Гончарик Дмитрий Борисович, к.м.н., доцент, заведующий отделом аритмологии



Список литературы

1. “Министерство здравоохранения Российской Федерации. Клинические рекомендации. Дата доступа 02/06/2021г.” https://scardio.ru/content/Guidelines/2020/Clinic_rekom_FP_TP-unlocked.pdf

2. Ревишвили А.Ш., Неминующий Н.М., Баталов Р.Е., Гиляров М.Ю., Голицын С.П., Давтян К.В., Думпис Я.Ю., Диденко М.В., Зенин С.А., Иваницкий Э.А., Комолятова В.Н., Кравцова Л.А.,Криволапов С.Н., Кузовлев А.Н., Купцов В.В., Лебедев Д.С., Линчак Р.М., Ломидзе Н, “Всероссийские клинические рекомендации по контролю над риском внезапной остановки сердца и внезапной сердечной смерти, профилактике и оказанию первой помощи,” Вестник аритмологии, vol. 89, pp. 2–104, 2017.

3. S. G. Priori et al., “2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death - Addenda,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 36, no. 41, pp. 2793–867, 2015, doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehv316.

4. S. M. Al-Khatib et al., “2017 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 72, no. 14, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.10.054.

5. E. M. Cronin et al., “2019 HRS/EHRA/APHRS/LAHRS expert consensus statement on catheter ablation of ventricular arrhythmias,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 17, no. 1, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2019.03.002.

6. M. J. Ackerman et al., “HRS/EHRA expert consensus statement on the state of genetic testing for the channelopathies and cardiomyopathies: This document was developed as a partnership between the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) and the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA),” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 8, no. 8, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2011.05.020.

7. M. N. Niemeijer et al., “Declining incidence of sudden cardiac death from 1990-2010 in a general middle-aged and elderly population: The Rotterdam Study,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 12, no. 1, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2014.09.054.

8. S. Mendis, P. Puska, and B. Norrving, “Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control,” World Heal. Organ., pp. 2–14, 2011, doi:NLM classification: WG 120.

9. R. E. Eckart et al., “Sudden death in young adults: An autopsy-based series of a population undergoing active surveillance,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 58, no. 12, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.01.049.

10. B. J. Maron, T. E. Gohman, and D. Aeppli, “Prevalence of sudden cardiac death during competitive sports activities in Minnesota high school athletes,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 32, no. 7, 1998, doi: 10.1016/S0735-1097(98)00491-4.

11. C. Van Der Werf et al., “Improving usual care after sudden death in the young with focus on inherited cardiac diseases (the CAREFUL study): A community-based intervention study,” Europace, vol. 18, no. 4, 2016, doi: 10.1093/europace/euv059.

12. “United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. UNECE statistical database. http://w3.unece.org/pxweb. Дата доступа 01/02/2021”.

13. “AHA Statistical Update Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics — 2019 Update A Report From the American Heart Association. DOI: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000659. Circulation. 2019;139:e56–e528”.

14. Макаров Л.М., Комолятова В.Н., Киселева И.И., Солохин Ю.А., “Распространённость внезапной сердечной смерти у лиц молодого возраста в крупном мегаполисе медицинский алфавит.,” Кардиология, vol. 1, pp. 35–40.

15. Щербакова Н.В., Воинова В.Ю., Школьникова М.А., “Генетика и сердце: основания для внедрения генетического тестирования в клиническую практику. Педиатрия.,” Журнал им. Г.Н. Сперанского., vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 8–15, 2020, doi: 10.24110/0031-403X-2020-99-3-8-15.

16. B. J. Maron, J. J. Doerer, T. S. Haas, D. M. Tierney, and F. O. Mueller, “Sudden deaths in young competitive athletes analysis of 1866 deaths in the united states, 1980-2006,” Circulation, vol. 119, no. 8, 2009, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.804617.

17. Рытова А.И., Хлебус Э.Ю., Шевцов А.Е., Куценко В.А., Щербакова Н.В., Жарикова А.А., Ершова А.И., Киселева А.В., Бойцов С.А., Яровая Е.Б., Мешков А.Н., “Современные вероятностно-статистические подходы к поиску вариантов нуклеотидной последовательности, ассоциированных с комплексными заболеваниями.,” Генетика, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 1153–1169, 2017, doi: 10.7868/S0016675817100083.

18. Воинова В.Ю., Николаева Е.А., Щербакова Н.В., Яблонская М.И., “Высокопроизводительное секвенирование днк для идентификации генетически детерминированных заболеваний в педиатрической практике.,” Российский вестник перинатологии и педиатрии, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 103–109, 2019, doi: 10.21508/1027-4065-2019-64-1-103-109.

19. R. Puranik, C. K. Chow, J. A. Duflou, M. J. Kilborn, and M. A. McGuire, “Sudden death in the young.,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 1277– 1282, Dec. 2005, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2005.09.008.

20. R. E. Eckart et al., “Sudden death in young adults: A 25-year review of autopsies in military recruits,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 141, no. 11. 2004. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-141-11-200412070-00005.

21. Щербакова Н.В., Жиронкина А.Б., Воинова В.Ю., Ильдарова Р.А., Школьникова М.А., “Фенотипическая вариабельность и варианты-модификаторы у детей с наследственными заболеваниями сердца.,” Российский вестник перинатологии и педиатрии., vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 12–19, 2021, doi: 10.21508/1027-4065-2021-66-3-12-19.

22. B. G. Winkel et al., “Nationwide study of sudden cardiac death in persons aged 1-35 years,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 32, no. 8, 2011, doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehq428.

23. B. Risgaard et al., “Burden of sudden cardiac death in persons aged 1 to 49 years nationwide study in denmark,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 7, no. 2, 2014, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.113.001421.

24. S. V. De Noronha et al., “The importance of specialist cardiac histopathological examination in the investigation of young sudden cardiac deaths,” Europace, vol. 16, no. 6, 2014, doi: 10.1093/europace/eut329.

25. Shcherbakova N., Kulikova O., Myasnikov R., Kiseleva A., Kharlap M., Meshkov A., Mershina E., Sinitsyn V., Boytsov S., “The genetics of noncompaction cardiomyopathy,” Eur. J. Hear. Fail. Suppl., vol. 19, no. S1, p. 437, 2017.

26. Б. С. А. Мясников Р.П., Щербакова Н.В., Куликова О.В., Мешков А.Н., Харлап М.С., Киселева А.В., Жарикова А.А., Дадали Е.Л., Семенова Н.А., Корецкий С.Н., Благова О.В., Мершина Е.А., Синицын В.Е., Драпкина О.М., “Мутация гена DES в семье пробанда с миофибриллярной миопатией и развитием некомпактной кардиомиопатии, приведшей к трансплантации сердца.,” Российский кардиологический журнал., vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 9–16, 2017, doi: 10.15829/1560-4071-2017-10-9-16.

27. M. P. Suárez-Mier, B. Aguilera, R. M. Mosquera, and M. S. Sánchezde-León, “Pathology of sudden death during recreational sports in Spain,” Forensic Sci. Int., vol. 226, no. 1–3, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.01.016.

28. A. Mazzanti et al., “The usual suspects in sudden cardiac death of the young: A focus on inherited arrhythmogenic diseases,” Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, vol. 12, no. 4. 2014. doi: 10.1586/14779072.2014.894884.

29. Хидирова Л.Д., Яхонтов Д.А., Зенин С.А., “Особенности течения фибрилляции предсердий у пациентов с коморбидностью в зависимости от проводимой терапии.,” Комплексные проблемы сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 21–29, 2019, doi: 10.17802/2306-1278-2019-8-2-21-29.

30. J. Lu et al., “Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in China: data from 1·7 million adults in a populationbased screening study (China PEACE Million Persons Project),” Lancet, vol. 390, no. 10112, 2017, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32478-9.

31. R. B. Schnabel et al., “50 year trends in atrial fibrillation prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and mortality in the Framingham Heart Study: A cohort study,” Lancet, vol. 386, no. 9989, 2015, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61774-8.

32. M. A. Shkolnikova et al., “Atrial fibrillation among Russian men and women aged 55 years and older: Prevalence, mortality, and associations with biomarkers in a population-based study,” J. Geriatr. Cardiol., vol. 17, no. 2, 2020, doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.02.002.

33. B. Ziaeian and G. C. Fonarow, “Epidemiology and aetiology of heart failure,” Nature Reviews Cardiology, vol. 13, no. 6. 2016. doi: 10.1038/nrcardio.2016.25.

34. Акрамова Э.Г., “Проблемы диагностики коморбидных форм хронической обструктивной болезни легких.,” Научное обозрение. Медицинские науки., vol. 3, pp. 5–22, 2016.

35. Акрамова Э.Г., Стручков П.В., Хамитов Р.Ф., Бакиров Р.С., “Электро и эхокардиографические признаки легочного сердца у больных хронической обструктивной болезнью легких с сопутствующей артериальной гипертензией.,” Пульмонология., vol. 4, pp. 46–51, 2013.

36. Хидирова Л.Д., Яхонтов Д.А., Зенин С.А., “Гипертоническая болезнь в сочетании с фибрилляцией предсердий и экстракардиальными заболеваниями.,” Казанский медицинский журнал, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 894–899, 2018, doi: 10.17816/KMJ2018-894.

37. Мешков А.Н., Ершова А.И., Щербакова Н.В., Рожкова Т.А., Калинина М.В., Кухарчук В.В., Бойцов С.А., “Фенотипические особенности течения гетерозиготной формы семейной гиперхолестеринемии у носителей мутаций генов LDLR и APOB,” Кардиоваскулярная терапия и профилактика, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 63–65, 2011.

38. Близнюк С.А., Рожкова Т.А., Ежов М.В., Попова А.Б., Малахов В.В., Трипотень М.И., Погорелова О.А., Чубыкина У.В., Тмоян Н.А., Балахонова Т.В., Афанасьева М.И., Афанасьева О.И., Покровский С.Н., “Особенности гиполипидемической терапии и предикторы сердечно-сосудистых осложнений у больных с гетерозиготной семейной гиперхолестеринемией.,” Атеросклероз и дислипидемии, vol. 4, no. 37, pp. 36–45, 2019, doi: 10.34687/2219-8202.JAD.2019.04.0004.

39. Курбанисмаилова П.М., Попова А.Б., Драненко Н.Ю., Сергиенко И.В., “Проблема выявления пациентов с семейной гиперхолестеринемией.,” Клиническая практика, vol. 3, no. 31, pp. 61–69, 2017.

40. R. McPherson and A. Tybjaerg-Hansen, “Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease,” Circ. Res., vol. 118, no. 4, 2016, doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.115.306566.

41. Щербакова Н.В., Мешков А.Н., Бойцов С.А., “Применение метода секвенирования экзомов для диагностики предрасположенности к комплексным заболеваниям в профилактической медицине.,” Кардиоваскулярная терапия и профилактика, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 24–28, 2013.

42. Мешков А.Н., Калинина М.В., Ершова А.И., Косенков Е.И., Щербакова Н.В., Рожкова Т.А., Масенко В.П., Кухарчук В.В., Бойцов С.А., “Уровень PCSK9 в семьях пациентов с семейной гиперхолестеринемией.,” Атеросклероз и дислипидемии, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 12–15, 2012.

43. C. Basso et al., “Guidelines for autopsy investigation of sudden cardiac death,” Virchows Archiv, vol. 452, no. 1. 2008. doi: 10.1007/s00428-007-0505-5.

44. C. Basso, E. Carturan, K. Pilichou, S. Rizzo, D. Corrado, and G. Thiene, “Sudden cardiac death with normal heart: Molecular autopsy,” in Cardiovascular Pathology, 2010, vol. 19, no. 6. doi: 10.1016/j.carpath.2010.02.003.

45. D. J. Tester, A. Medeiros-Domingo, M. L. Will, C. M. Haglund, and M. J. Ackerman, “Cardiac channel molecular autopsy: Insights from 173 consecutive cases of autopsy-negative sudden unexplained death referred for postmortem genetic testing,” in Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 2012, vol. 87, no. 6. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2012.02.017.

46. S. G. Priori et al., “Executive summary: HRS/EHRA/APHRS expert consensus statement on the diagnosis and management of patients with inherited primary arrhythmia syndromes.,” Europace : European pacing, arrhythmias, and cardiac electrophysiology : journal of the working groups on cardiac pacing, arrhythmias, and cardiac cellular electrophysiology of the European Society of Cardiology, vol. 15, no. 10. 2013. doi: 10.1093/europace/eut272.

47. A. Moya et al., “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope (version 2009),” European Heart Journal, vol. 30, no. 21. 2009. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehp298.

48. X. Jouven, M. Desnos, C. Guerot, and P. Ducimetière, “Predicting sudden death in the population. The Paris prospective study I,” Circulation, vol. 99, no. 15, 1999, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.99.15.1978.

49. Y. Friedlander et al., “Family history as a risk factor for primary cardiac arrest,” Circulation, vol. 97, no. 2, 1998, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.97.2.155.

50. D. P. Zipes et al., “ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 guidelines for management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death: A report of the American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association Task Force and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines,” Europace, vol. 8, no. 9. 2006. doi: 10.1093/europace/eul108.

51. S. George, I. Rodriguez, D. Ipe, P. T. Sager, I. Gussak, and B. Vajdic, “Computerized extraction of electrocardiograms from continuous 12-lead holter recordings reduces measurement variability in a thorough QT study,” J. Clin. Pharmacol., vol. 52, no. 12, 2012, doi: 10.1177/0091270011430505.

52. C. De Asmundis et al., “Comparison of the patient-activated event recording system vs. traditional 24 h Holter electrocardiography in individuals with paroxysmal palpitations or dizziness,” Europace, vol. 16, no. 8, 2014, doi: 10.1093/europace/eut411.

53. K. Volosin, R. W. Stadler, R. Wyszynski, and P. Kirchhof, “Tachycardia detection performance of implantable loop recorders: Results from a large ‘real-life’ patient cohort and patients with induced ventricular arrhythmias,” Europace, vol. 15, no. 8, 2013, doi: 10.1093/europace/eut036.

54. G. S. Kamath et al., “Value of the signal-averaged electrocardiogram in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 8, no. 2, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2010.10.007.

55. A. Nava et al., “Signal-averaged electrocardiogram in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and ventricular arrhythmias,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 21, no. 1, 2000, doi: 10.1053/euhj.1999.1733.

56. R. J. Gibbons et al., “ACC/AHA 2002 guideline update for exercise testing: Summary article. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines (committee to update the 1997 exercise testing guidelines),” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 14. 2002. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000034670.06526.15.

57. P. J. Podrid and T. B. Graboys, “Exercise stress testing in the management of cardiac rhythm disorders,” Med. Clin. North Am., vol. 68, no. 5, 1984, doi: 10.1016/S0025-7125(16)31089-6.

58. D. P. Zipes et al., “ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 guidelines for management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death - Executive summary: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines.,” European Heart Journal, vol. 27, no. 17. 2006. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehl199.

59. M. Prastaro et al., “Prognostic role of transthoracic echocardiography in patients affected by heart failure and reduced ejection fraction,” Heart Fail. Rev., vol. 20, no. 3, 2015, doi: 10.1007/s10741-014-9461-8.

60. D. T. Chiu, N. I. Shapiro, B. C. Sun, J. L. Mottley, and S. A. Grossman, “Are echocardiography, telemetry, ambulatory electrocardiography monitoring, and cardiac enzymes in emergency department patients presenting with syncope useful tests? A preliminary investigation,” J. Emerg. Med., vol. 47, no. 1, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2014.01.018.

61. M. J. Zellweger et al., “Threshold, incidence, and predictors of prognostically high-risk silent ischemia in asymptomatic patients without prior diagnosis of coronary artery disease,” J. Nucl. Cardiol., vol. 16, no. 2, 2009, doi: 10.1007/s12350-008-9016-2.

62. X. Kang et al., “Comparative ability of myocardial perfusion singlephoton emission computed tomography to detect coronary artery disease in patients with and without diabetes mellitus,” Am. Heart J., vol. 137, no. 5, 1999, doi: 10.1016/S0002-8703(99)70421-7.

63. J. E. Marine et al., “Prevalence and prognostic significance of exerciseinduced nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in asymptomatic volunteers: BLSA (Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging),” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 62, no. 7, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.05.026.

64. M. D. Cheitlin et al., “ACC/AHA/ASE 2003 guideline update for the clinical application of echocardiography: Summary article: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (ACC/AHA/ASE Committee to Update the 1997 Guidelines for the Clinical Application of Echocardiography),” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 9. 2003. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000073597.57414.A9.

65. A. Zeliaś, J. Stȩpińska, J. Andres, A. Tra̧bka-Zawicki, J. Sadowski, and K. Zmudka, “Ten-year experience of an invasive cardiology centre with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients admitted for urgent coronary angiography,” Kardiol. Pol., vol. 72, no. 8, 2014, doi: 10.5603/KP.a2014.0088.

66. S. Zaman et al., “Significance of repeat programmed ventricular stimulation at electrophysiology study for arrhythmia prediction after acute myocardial infarction,” PACE - Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol., vol. 37, no. 7, 2014, doi: 10.1111/pace.12391.

67. B. Brembilla-Perrot, C. Suty-Selton, P. Houriez, O. Claudon, D. Beurrier, and A. T. De La Chaise, “Value of non-invasive and invasive studies in patients with bundle branch block, syncope and history of myocardial infarction,” Europace, vol. 3, no. 3, 2001, doi: 10.1053/eupc.2001.0174.

68. A. Roguin et al., “Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 43, no. 10, 2004, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2004.01.030.

69. A. Bhonsale et al., “Incidence and predictors of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy undergoing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation for primary prevention,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 58, no. 14, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.06.043.

70. J. J. Goldberger, H. Subačius, T. Patel, R. Cunnane, and A. H. Kadish, “Sudden cardiac death risk stratification in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 63, no. 18, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.12.021.

71. J. Brugada, R. Brugada, and P. Brugada, “Determinants of Sudden Cardiac Death in Individuals with the Electrocardiographic Pattern of Brugada Syndrome and No Previous Cardiac Arrest,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 25, 2003, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000104568.13957.4F.

72. P. M. Elliott et al., “European Society of Cardiology Guidelines on diagnosis and management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 35, no. 39, 2014.

73. A. K. Bhandari, W. A. Shapiro, F. Morady, E. N. Shen, J. Mason, and M. M. Scheinman, “Electrophysiologic testing in patients with the long QT syndrome,” Circulation, vol. 71, no. 1, 1985, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.71.1.63.

74. C. Giustetto et al., “Long-term follow-up of patients with short QT syndrome,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 58, no. 6, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.03.038.

75. A. Mazzanti et al., “Novel insight into the natural history of short QT syndrome,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 63, no. 13, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.09.078.

76. P. Denes, E. Uretz, M. D. Ezri, and J. Borbola, “Clinical predictors of electrophysiologic findings in patients with syncope of unknown origin,” Arch. Intern. Med., vol. 148, no. 9, 1988, doi: 10.1001/archinte.148.9.1922.

77. M. Brignole et al., “Mechanism of syncope in patients with bundle branch block and negative electrophysiological test,” Circulation, vol. 104, no. 17, 2001, doi: 10.1161/hc4201.097837.

78. H. R. Middlekauff, W. G. Stevenson, L. W. Stevenson, and L. A. Saxon, “Syncope in advanced heart failure: High risk of sudden death regardless of origin of syncope,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 21, no. 1, 1993, doi: 10.1016/0735-1097(93)90724-F.

79. H. J. J. Wellens et al., “Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death: Current status and challenges for the future,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 35, no. 25, 2014, doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehu176.

80. M. Yoshinaga et al., “Electrocardiographic screening of 1-monthold infants for identifying prolonged QT intervals,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 6, no. 5, 2013, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.113.000619.

81. M. Yoshinaga et al., “Genetic characteristics of children and adolescents with long-QT syndrome diagnosed by school-based electrocardiographic screening programs,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 7, no. 1, 2014, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.113.000426.

82. P. J. Schwartz et al., “Prevalence of the congenital long-QT syndrome.,” Circulation, vol. 120, no. 18, pp. 1761–1767, Nov. 2009, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.863209.

83. D. Corrado et al., “Cardiovascular pre-participation screening of young competitive athletes for prevention of sudden death: proposal for a common European protocol,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 26, no. 5, 2005, doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehi108.

84. B. J. Maron et al., “Recommendations and Considerations Related to Preparticipation Screening for Cardiovascular Abnormalities in Competitive Athletes: 2007 Update,” Circulation, vol. 115, no. 12, 2007, doi: 10.1161/circulationaha.107.181423.

85. A. Ljungqvist et al., “The International Olympic Committee (IOC) consensus statement on periodic health evaluation of elite athletes,” Int. Sport. J., vol. 10, no. 3, 2009.

86. A. Steinvil et al., “Mandatory electrocardiographic screening of athletes to reduce their risk for sudden death: Proven fact or wishful thinking?,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 57, no. 11, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.10.037.

87. P. M. Narain R, Dhutia H, Merghani A, Myers J, MathotraA, Mitlar L, Sheikh N, Sharma S, “Featured Oral Abstracts. Preventing sudden cardiac death in the young: results from a population-based screening program in the UK,” Eur. J. Prev. Cardiol., vol. 21, no. 1_suppl, pp. S1–S6, May 2014, doi: 10.1177/2047487314534570.

88. J. R. Kaltman et al., “Screening for sudden cardiac death in the young: Report from a national heart, lung, and blood institute working group,” Circulation, vol. 123, no. 17, 2011, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.017228.

89. C. A. James et al., “Exercise increases age-related penetrance and arrhythmic risk in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/ cardiomyopathy-associated desmosomal mutation carriers,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 62, no. 14, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.06.033.

90. A. C. Sawant et al., “Exercise has a disproportionate role in the pathogenesis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/ cardiomyopathy in patients without desmosomal mutations,” J. Am. Heart Assoc., vol. 3, no. 6, 2014, doi: 10.1161/JAHA.114.001471.

91. G. Webster, T. Carberry, and S. Berger, “Screening for prevention of sudden death in the young: What is new?,” Current Opinion in Cardiology, vol. 35, no. 1. 2020. doi: 10.1097/HCO.0000000000000689.

92. “приказ Министерства здравоохранения Российской Федерации от 3 февраля 2015 г. No 36ан «Об утверждении порядка проведения диспансеризации определенных групп взрослого населения»”.

93. “Приложение №1 к приказу Министерству здравоохранения Российской Федерации от 21 декабря 2012 г. N 1346н «О порядке прохождения несовершеннолетними медицинских осмотров, в том числе при поступлении в образовательные учреждения и в период обучения в них»”.

94. E. R. Behr et al., “Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome: Familial evaluation identifies inheritable heart disease in the majority of families,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 29, no. 13, 2008, doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehn219.

95. P. Charron et al., “Genetic counselling and testing in cardiomyopathies: A position statement of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases,” European Heart Journal, vol. 31, no. 22. 2010. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehq271.

96. I. Christiaans, E. Birnie, G. J. Bonsel, A. A. M. Wilde, and I. M. van Langen, “Uptake of genetic counselling and predictive DNA testing in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Eur. J. Hum. Genet., vol. 16, no. 10, 2008, doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2008.92.

97. E. Ormondroyd, S. Oates, M. Parker, E. Blair, and H. Watkins, “Presymptomatic genetic testing for inherited cardiac conditions: A qualitative exploration of psychosocial and ethical implications,” Eur. J. Hum. Genet., vol. 22, no. 1, 2014, doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2013.81.

98. J. Ingles et al., “Health status of cardiac genetic disease patients and their at-risk relatives,” Int. J. Cardiol., vol. 165, no. 3, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.08.083.

99. R. N. Battista, I. Blancquaert, A. M. Laberge, N. Van Schendel, and N. Leduc, “Genetics in health care: An overview of current and emerging models,” Public Health Genomics, vol. 15, no. 1, 2011, doi: 10.1159/000328846.

100. J. Ingles, J. M. Lind, P. Phongsavan, and C. Semsarian, “Psychosocial impact of specialized cardiac genetic clinics for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Genet. Med., vol. 10, no. 2, 2008, doi: 10.1097/GIM.0b013e3181612cc7.

101. I. Christiaans, I. M. Van Langen, E. Birnie, G. J. Bonsel, A. A. M. Wilde, and E. M. A. Smets, “Quality of life and psychological distress in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation carriers: A cross-sectional cohort study,” Am. J. Med. Genet. Part A, vol. 149, no. 4, 2009, doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32710.

102. C. McGorrian et al., “Family-based cardiac screening in relatives of victims of sudden arrhythmic death syndrome,” Europace, vol. 15, no. 7, 2013, doi: 10.1093/europace/eus408.

103. R. J. Myerburg, K. M. Kessler, and A. Castellanos, “Sudden cardiac death: Structure, function, and time-dependence of risk,” in Circulation, 1992, vol. 85, no. 1 SUPPL.

104. D. M. Lloyd-Jones et al., “Framingham risk score and prediction of lifetime risk for coronary heart disease,” Am. J. Cardiol., vol. 94, no. 1, 2004, doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.03.023.

105. J. Perk et al., “European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012): The fifth joint task force of the European society of cardiology and other societies on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts),” International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 19, no. 4. 2012. doi: 10.1007/s12529-012-9242-5.

106. L. R. C. Dekker et al., “Familial sudden death is an important risk factor for primary ventricular fibrillation: A case-control study in acute myocardial infarction patients,” Circulation, vol. 114, no. 11, 2006, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.606145.

107. D. G. Dechering et al., “Electrophysiological characteristics of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in cardiac sarcoidosis versus arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 10, no. 2, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2012.10.019.

108. C. R. Bezzina et al., “Genome-wide association study identifies a susceptibility locus at 21q21 for ventricular fibrillation in acute myocardial infarction,” Nat. Genet., vol. 42, no. 8, 2010, doi: 10.1038/ng.623.

109. D. E. Arking et al., “Identification of a sudden cardiac death susceptibility locus at 2q24.2 through genome-wide association in european ancestry individuals,” PLoS Genet., vol. 7, no. 6, 2011, doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002158.

110. A. J. Moss et al., “Prophylactic implantation of a defibrillator in patients with myocardial infarction and reduced ejection fraction.,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 346, no. 12, pp. 877–883, Mar. 2002, doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa013474.

111. G. H. Bardy et al., “Amiodarone or an implantable cardioverterdefibrillator for congestive heart failure.,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 352, no. 3, pp. 225–237, Jan. 2005, doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa043399.

112. P. A. Scott, J. Barry, P. R. Roberts, and J. M. Morgan, “Brain natriuretic peptide for the prediction of sudden cardiac death and ventricular arrhythmias: A meta-analysis,” Eur. J. Heart Fail., vol. 11, no. 10, 2009, doi: 10.1093/eurjhf/hfp123.

113. Y. C. Levine et al., “B-type natriuretic peptide is a major predictor of ventricular tachyarrhythmias,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 11, no. 7, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2014.04.024.

114. S. G. Priori et al., “Risk Stratification in the Long-QT Syndrome,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 348, no. 19, 2003, doi: 10.1056/nejmoa022147.

115. P. Spirito, P. Bellone, K. M. Harris, P. Bernabò, P. Bruzzi, and B. J. Maron, “Magnitude of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Risk of Sudden Death in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 342, no. 24, 2000, doi: 10.1056/nejm200006153422403.

116. A. Barsheshet et al., “Mutations in cytoplasmic loops of the KCNQ1 channel and the risk of life-threatening events: Implications for mutation-specific response to β-blocker therapy in type 1 longQT syndrome,” Circulation, vol. 125, no. 16, 2012, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.048041.

117. A. J. Moss et al., “Increased risk of arrhythmic events in long-QT syndrome with mutations in the pore region of the human ether-a-gogo-related gene potassium channel,” Circulation, vol. 105, no. 7, 2002, doi: 10.1161/hc0702.105124.

118. I. A. W. Van Rijsingen et al., “Risk factors for malignant ventricular arrhythmias in Lamin A/C mutation carriers: A European cohort study,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 59, no. 5, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.08.078.

119. Amiodarone Trials Meta-Analysis Investigators, “Effect of prophylactic amiodarone on mortality after acute myocardial infarction and in congestive heart failure: meta-analysis of individual data from 6500 patients in randomised trials,” Lancet, vol. 350, no. 9089, 1997.

120. F. Boutitie et al., “Amiodarone interaction with beta-blockers: analysis of the merged EMIAT (European Myocardial Infarct Amiodarone Trial) and CAMIAT (Canadian Amiodarone Myocardial Infarction Trial) databases. The EMIAT and CAMIAT Investigators.,” Circulation, vol. 99, no. 17, pp. 2268–2275, May 1999, doi: 10.1161/01.cir.99.17.2268.

121. W. A. Ray, K. T. Murray, S. Meredith, S. S. Narasimhulu, K. Hall, and C. M. Stein, “Oral Erythromycin and the Risk of Sudden Death from Cardiac Causes,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 351, no. 11, 2004, doi: 10.1056/nejmoa040582.

122. A. D. Mosholder, J. Mathew, J. J. Alexander, H. Smith, and S. Nambiar, “Cardiovascular Risks with Azithromycin and Other Antibacterial Drugs,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 368, no. 18, 2013, doi: 10.1056/nejmp1302726.

123. L. Belardinelli, W. R. Giles, S. Rajamani, H. S. Karagueuzian, and J. C. Shryock, “Cardiac late Na+ current: proarrhythmic effects, roles in long QT syndromes, and pathological relationship to CaMKII and oxidative stress.,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 440–448, Feb. 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2014.11.009.

124. G. Sarganas, E. Garbe, A. Klimpel, R. C. Hering, E. Bronder, and W. Haverkamp, “Epidemiology of symptomatic drug-induced long QT syndrome and torsade de pointes in Germany,” Europace, vol. 16, no. 1, 2014, doi: 10.1093/europace/eut214.

125. “Preliminary Report: Effect of Encainide and Flecainide on Mortality in a Randomized Trial of Arrhythmia Suppression after Myocardial Infarction,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 321, no. 6, pp. 406–412, Aug. 1989, doi: 10.1056/NEJM198908103210629.

126. M. W. Deyell et al., “Predictors of recovery of left ventricular dysfunction after ablation of frequent ventricular premature depolarizations,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 9, no. 9, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2012.05.019.

127. T. S. Baman et al., “Relationship between burden of premature ventricular complexes and left ventricular function,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 7, no. 7, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2010.03.036.

128. J. E. Ban et al., “Electrocardiographic and electrophysiological characteristics of premature ventricular complexes associated with left ventricular dysfunction in patients without structural heart disease,” Europace, vol. 15, no. 5, 2013, doi: 10.1093/europace/eus371.

129. J. J. V. McMurray et al., “ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012: The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC.,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 33, no. 14, 2012, doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs104.

130. S. J. Connolly et al., “Comparison of beta-blockers, amiodarone plus beta-blockers, or sotalol for prevention of shocks from implantable cardioverter defibrillators: the OPTIC Study: a randomized trial.,” JAMA, vol. 295, no. 2, pp. 165–171, Jan. 2006, doi: 10.1001/jama.295.2.165.

131. H. Calkins et al., “Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients with structural heart disease using cooled radiofrequency energy: results of a prospective multicenter study. Cooled RF Multi Center Investigators Group.,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 35, no. 7, 2000.

132. W. G. Stevenson et al., “Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial,” Circulation, vol. 118, no. 25, 2008, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.788604.

133. H. Tanner et al., “Catheter ablation of recurrent scar-related ventricular tachycardia using electroanatomical mapping and irrigated ablation technology: Results of the prospective multicenter Euro-VT-study,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 21, no. 1, 2010, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2009.01563.x.

134. J. A. Cairns, S. J. Connolly, R. Roberts, and M. Gent, “Randomised trial of outcome after myocardial infarction in patients with frequent or repetitive ventricular premature depolarisations: CAMIAT,” Lancet, vol. 349, no. 9053, 1997, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(96)08171-8.

135. D. G. Julian et al., “Randomised trial of effect of amiodarone on mortality in patients with left-ventricular dysfunction after recent myocardial infarction: EMIAT,” Lancet, vol. 349, no. 9053, 1997, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(96)09145-3.

136. D. S. Echt et al., “Mortality and Morbidity in Patients Receiving Encainide, Flecainide, or Placebo: The Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 324, no. 12, 1991, doi: 10.1056/NEJM199103213241201.

137. J. G. F. Cleland et al., “The effect of cardiac resynchronization on morbidity and mortality in heart failure.,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 352, no. 15, pp. 1539–1549, Apr. 2005, doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa050496.

138. S. A. Strickberger et al., “Amiodarone versus implantable cardioverterdefibrillator: Randomized trial in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and asymptomatic nonsustained ventricular tachycardia - AMIOVIRT,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 41, no. 10, 2003, doi: 10.1016/S0735-1097(03)00297-3.

139. L. Køber et al., “Increased Mortality after Dronedarone Therapy for Severe Heart Failure,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 358, no. 25, 2008, doi: 10.1056/nejmoa0800456.

140. S. J. Connolly et al., “Dronedarone in High-Risk Permanent Atrial Fibrillation,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 365, no. 24, 2011, doi: 10.1056/nejmoa1109867.

141. J. Caceres et al., “Sustained bundle branch reentry as a mechanism of clinical tachycardia,” Circulation, vol. 79, no. 2, 1989, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.79.2.256.

142. P. Tchou, M. Jazayeri, S. Denker, J. Dongas, J. Caceres, and M. Akhtar, “Transcatheter electrical ablation of right bundle branch. A method of treating macroreentrant ventricular tachycardia attributed to bundle branch reentry,” Circulation, vol. 78, no. 2, 1988, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.78.2.246.

143. M. C. Kontos, D. B. Diercks, P. M. Ho, T. Y. Wang, A. Y. Chen, and M. T. Roe, “Treatment and outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction treated with acute β-blocker therapy: results from the American College of Cardiology’s NCDR(®).,” Am. Heart J., vol. 161, no. 5, pp. 864–870, May 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2011.01.006.

144. S. N. Singh et al., “Amiodarone in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure and Asymptomatic Ventricular Arrhythmia,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 333, no. 2, 1995, doi: 10.1056/nejm199507133330201.

145. J. P. Piccini, J. S. Berger, and C. M. O’Connor, “Amiodarone for the prevention of sudden cardiac death: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 30, no. 10, 2009, doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehp100.

146. B. N. Singh et al., “Amiodarone versus Sotalol for Atrial Fibrillation,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 352, no. 18, 2005, doi: 10.1056/nejmoa041705.

147. C. Lafuente-Lafuente, M. A. Longas-Tejero, J.-F. Bergmann, and J. Belmin, “Antiarrhythmics for maintaining sinus rhythm after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation,” in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2012. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd005049.pub3.

148. V. Kühlkamp, C. Mewis, J. Mermi, R. F. Bosch, and L. Seipel, “Suppression of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias: A comparison of d,l-sotalol with no antiarrhythmic drug treatment,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 33, no. 1, 1999, doi: 10.1016/S0735-1097(98)00521-X.

149. A. L. Waldo et al., “Effect of d-sotalol on mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after recent and remote myocardial infarction,” Lancet, vol. 348, no. 9019, 1996, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(96)02149-6.

150. S. H. Hohnloser et al., “Effect of amiodarone and sotalol on ventricular defibrillation threshold: The Optimal Pharmacological Therapy in Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients (OPTIC) trial,” Circulation, vol. 114, no. 2, 2006, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.618421.

151. T. J. Bunch et al., “Ranolazine reduces ventricular tachycardia burden and ICD shocks in patients with drug-refractory ICD shocks,” PACE - Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol., vol. 34, no. 12, 2011, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8159.2011.03208.x.

152. A. Pacifico et al., “Prevention of Implantable-Defibrillator Shocks by Treatment with Sotalol,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 340, no. 24, 1999, doi: 10.1056/nejm199906173402402.

153. A. Goyal et al., “Serum potassium levels and mortality in acute myocardial infarction,” JAMA - J. Am. Med. Assoc., vol. 307, no. 2, 2012, doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.1967.

154. A. B. de Luna, P. Coumel, and J. F. Leclercq, “Ambulatory sudden cardiac death: Mechanisms of production of fatal arrhythmia on the basis of data from 157 cases,” Am. Heart J., vol. 117, no. 1, 1989, doi: 10.1016/0002-8703(89)90670-4.

155. C. M. Albert et al., “Prospective study of sudden cardiac death among women in the United States,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 16, 2003, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000065223.21530.11.

156. T. Smith, L. Jordaens, D. A. M. J. Theuns, P. F. Van Dessel, A. A. Wilde, and M. G. Myriam Hunink, “The cost-effectiveness of primary prophylactic implantable defibrillator therapy in patients with ischaemic or non-ischaemic heart disease: A European analysis,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 34, no. 3, 2013, doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs090.

157. J. M. Garnreiter, T. A. Pilcher, S. P. Etheridge, and E. V. Saarel, “Inappropriate ICD shocks in pediatrics and congenital heart disease patients: Risk factors and programming strategies,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 12, no. 5, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2015.01.028.

158. D. P. Zipes, “A comparison of antiarrhythmic-drug therapy with implantable defibrillators in patients resuscitated from near-fatal ventricular arrhythmias. The Antiarrhythmics versus Implantable Defibrillators (AVID) Investigators,” N Engl J Med, vol. 337, no. 22, 1997.

159. S. J. Connolly et al., “Canadian implantable defibrillator study (CIDS): A randomized trial of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator against amiodarone,” Circulation, vol. 101, no. 11, 2000, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.101.11.1297.

160. K. H. Kuck, R. Cappato, J. Siebels, and R. Rüppel, “Randomized comparison of antiarrhythmic drug therapy with implantable defibrillators in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest: The cardiac arrest study hamburg (CASH),” Circulation, vol. 102, no. 7, 2000, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.102.7.748.

161. S. J. Connolly et al., “Meta-analysis of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator secondary prevention trials. AVID, CASH and CIDS studies. Antiarrhythmics vs Implantable Defibrillator study. Cardiac Arrest Study Hamburg . Canadian Implantable Defibrillator Study.,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 21, no. 24, 2000.

162. M. H. Raitt et al., “‘Stable’ ventricular tachycardia is not a benign rhythm: Insights from the Antiarrhythmics Versus Implantable Defibrillators (AVID) Registry,” Circulation, vol. 103, no. 2, 2001, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.103.2.244.

163. J. T. Bigger Jr., “Prophylactic use of implanted cardiac defibrillators in patients at high risk for ventricular arrhythmias after coronary-artery bypass graft surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Patch Trial Investigators,” N Engl J Med, vol. 337, no. 22, 1997.

164. M. Block and G. Breithardt, “The implantable cardioverter defibrillator and primary prevention of sudden death: The multicenter automatic defibrillator implantation trial and the coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)-patch trial,” in American Journal of Cardiology, 1999, vol. 83, no. 5 B. doi: 10.1016/S0002-9149(98)01028-5.

165. “Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial (MADIT): Design and Clinical Protocol,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol., vol. 14, no. 5, 1991, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8159.1991.tb04136.x.

166. I. Goldenberg et al., “Time dependence of defibrillator benefit after coronary revascularization in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial (MADIT)-II.,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 1811–1817, May 2006, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2005.12.048.

167. D. L. Packer et al., “Impact of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, amiodarone, and placebo on the mode of death in stable patients with heart failure: Analysis from the sudden cardiac death in heart failure trial,” Circulation, vol. 120, no. 22, 2009, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.853689.

168. A. Kadish et al., “Prophylactic Defibrillator Implantation in Patients with Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy for the Defibrillators in Non-Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Treatment Evaluation (DEFINITE) Investigators*,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 350, no. 21, 2004.

169. D. Erkapic et al., “Long-term benefit of implantable cardioverter/ defibrillator therapy after elective device replacement: Results of the INcidence free SUrvival after ICD REplacement (INSURE) trial-a prospective multicentre study,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 34, no. 2, 2013, doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs177.

170. V. Kini et al., “Appropriateness of primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillators at the time of generator replacement: Are indications still met?,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 63, no. 22, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.03.025.

171. F. M. Merchant, P. Jones, S. Wehrenberg, M. S. Lloyd, and L. A. Saxon, “Incidence of defibrillator shocks after elective generator exchange following uneventful first battery life,” J. Am. Heart Assoc., vol. 3, no. 6, 2014, doi: 10.1161/JAHA.114.001289.

172. L. Køber et al., “Defibrillator Implantation in Patients with Nonischemic Systolic Heart Failure,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 375, no. 13, 2016, doi: 10.1056/nejmoa1608029.

173. D. Bänsch et al., “Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: The Cardiomyopathy Trial (CAT),” Circulation, vol. 105, no. 12, 2002, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000012350.99718.AD.

174. A. S. Desai, J. C. Fang, W. H. Maisel, and K. L. Baughman, “Implantable defibrillators for the prevention of mortality in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 292, no. 23. 2004. doi: 10.1001/jama.292.23.2874.

175. G. H. Bardy et al., “An Entirely Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter– Defibrillator,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 363, no. 1, 2010, doi: 10.1056/ nejmoa0909545.

176. R. Weiss et al., “Safety and efficacy of a totally subcutaneous implantable-cardioverter defibrillator,” Circulation, vol. 128, no. 9, 2013, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.003042.

177. J. W. E. Jarman, K. Lascelles, T. Wong, V. Markides, J. R. Clague, and J. Till, “Clinical experience of entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverterdefibrillators in children and adults: Cause for caution,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 33, no. 11, 2012, doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs017.

178. L. Dabiri Abkenari et al., “Clinical experience with a novel subcutaneous implantable defibrillator system in a single center,” Clin. Res. Cardiol., vol. 100, no. 9, 2011, doi: 10.1007/s00392-011-0303-6.

179. P. D. Lambiase et al., “Worldwide experience with a totally subcutaneous implantable defibrillator: Early results from the EFFORTLESS S-ICD registry,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 35, no. 25, 2014, doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehu112.

180. M. C. Burke et al., “Safety and efficacy of the totally subcutaneous implantable defibrillator: 2-year results from a pooled analysis of the IDE study and EFFORTLESS registry,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 65, no. 16, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.02.047.

181. M. F. El-Chami et al., “Outcome of subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation in patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 26, no. 8, 2015, doi: 10.1111/jce.12705.

182. A. Auricchio, H. Klein, C. J. Geller, S. Reek, M. S. Heilman, and S. J. Szymkiewicz, “Clinical efficacy of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator in acutely terminating episodes of ventricular fibrillation,” Am. J. Cardiol., vol. 81, no. 10, 1998, doi: 10.1016/S0002-9149(98)00120-9.

183. M. K. Chung et al., “Aggregate national experience with the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator: Event rates, compliance, and survival,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 56, no. 3, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.04.016.

184. A. E. Epstein et al., “Wearable cardioverter-defibrillator use in patients perceived to be at high risk early post-myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 62, no. 21, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.05.086.

185. H. U. Klein, I. Goldenberg, and A. J. Moss, “Risk stratification for implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy: The role of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator,” European Heart Journal, vol. 34, no. 29. 2013. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht167.

186. A. C. Kao et al., “Wearable defibrillator use in heart failure (WIF): Results of a prospective registry,” BMC Cardiovasc. Disord., vol. 12, 2012, doi: 10.1186/1471-2261-12-123.

187. A. Adler, A. Halkin, and S. Viskin, “Wearable cardioverterdefibrillators,” Circulation, vol. 127, no. 7, 2013, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.146530.

188. and L. Z. Xiang Yin, Linli Zhou, Fei Han, Jie Han, Yuanyuan Zhang, Zewei Sun, Wenting Zhao, Zhen Wang, “Beta-adrenoceptor Activation by Norepinephrine Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression Through the ERK/JNK-c-Fos Pathway in Human THP-1 Cells.,” J AtherosclerThromb, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 55– 67, 2017.

189. J. J. Liang, D. O. Hodge, R. A. Mehta, A. M. Russo, A. Prasad, and Y. M. Cha, “Outcomes in patients with sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias occurring within 48 h of acute myocardial infarction: When is ICD appropriate?,” Europace, vol. 16, no. 12, 2014, doi: 10.1093/europace/euu138.

190. J. Ahn et al., “Effectiveness of beta-blockers depending on the genotype of congenital long-QT syndrome: A meta-analysis,” PLoS One, vol. 12, no. 10, 2017, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0185680.

191. S. P.J. et al., “Who are the long-QT syndrome patients who receive an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and what happens to them?: Data from the European Long-QT syndrome implantable cardioverterdefibrillator (LQTS ICD) registry,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 13, 2010.

192. G. Mönnig et al., “Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in patients with congenital long-QT syndrome: A long-term follow-up,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 2, no. 5, 2005, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2005.02.008.

193. A. J. Moss et al., “Safety and efficacy of flecainide in subjects with long QT-3 syndrome (ΔKPQ mutation): A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” in Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology, 2005, vol. 10, no. SUPPL. 4. doi: 10.1111/j.1542-474X.2005.00077.x.

194. A. J. Moss et al., “Effectiveness and limitations of beta-blocker therapy in congenital long-QT syndrome.,” Circulation, vol. 101, no. 6, pp. 616–623, Feb. 2000, doi: 10.1161/01.cir.101.6.616.

195. W. Zareba, A. J. Moss, J. P. Daubert, W. J. Hall, J. L. Robinson, and M. Andrews, “Implantable cardioverter defibrillator in high-risk long QT syndrome patients,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 14, no. 4, 2003, doi: 10.1046/j.1540-8167.2003.02545.x.

196. C. Jons et al., “Risk of Fatal Arrhythmic Events in Long QT Syndrome Patients After Syncope,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 55, no. 8, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.11.042.

197. S. G. Priori et al., “Natural history of Brugada syndrome: Insights for risk stratification and management,” Circulation, vol. 105, no. 11, 2002, doi: 10.1161/hc1102.105288.

198. I. M.A., F. L., P. B., C. N., L. B., and T. S., “Prognostic value of programmed ventricular stimulation in Brugada syndrome according to clinical presentation: Updated meta-analysis of published data,” Arch. Cardiovasc. Dis. Suppl., vol. 4, no. SUPPL. 1, 2012.

199. S. G. Priori et al., “Executive summary: HRS/EHRA/APHRS expert consensus statement on the diagnosis and management of patients with inherited primary arrhythmia syndromes,” J. Arrhythmia, vol. 30, no. 1, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.joa.2013.08.001.

200. S. G. Priori et al., “Clinical and molecular characterization of patients with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 1, 2002, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000020013.73106.D8.

201. M. Hayashi et al., “Incidence and risk factors of arrhythmic events in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia,” Circulation, vol. 119, no. 18, 2009, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.829267.

202. F. Roses-Noguer, J. W. E. Jarman, J. R. Clague, and J. Till, “Outcomes of defibrillator therapy in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 11, no. 1, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2013.10.027.

203. F. Gaita et al., “Short QT syndrome: A familial cause of sudden death,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 8, 2003, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000085071.28695.C4.

204. F. Gaita et al., “Short QT syndrome: Pharmacological treatment,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 43, no. 8, 2004, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2004.02.034.

205. A. F. L. Schinkel, “Implantable cardioverter defibrillators in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy: Patient outcomes, incidence of appropriate and inappropriate interventions, and complications,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 6, no. 3, 2013, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.113.000392.

206. D. Corrado et al., “Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Therapy for Prevention of Sudden Death in Patients with Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy/Dysplasia,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 25, 2003, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000103130.33451.D2.

207. T. Wichter et al., “Implantable Cardioverter/Defibrillator Therapy in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy: Single-Center Experience of Long-Term Follow-Up and Complications in 60 Patients,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 12, 2004, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000121738.88273.43.

208. D. Corrado et al., “Prophylactic implantable defibrillator in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia and no prior ventricular fibrillation or sustained ventricular tachycardia,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 12, 2010, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.913871.

209. S. Peters, “Long-term follow-up and risk assessment of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy: Personal experience from different primary and tertiary centres,” J. Cardiovasc. Med., vol. 8, no. 7, 2007, doi: 10.2459/01.JCM.0000278450.35107.b3.

210. K. Lemola, C. Brunckhorst, U. Helfenstein, E. Oechslin, R. Jenni, and F. Duru, “Predictors of adverse outcome in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy: Long term experience of a tertiary care centre,” Heart, vol. 91, no. 9, 2005, doi: 10.1136/hrt.2004.038620.

211. D. Dalal et al., “Clinical features of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/ cardiomyopathy associated with mutations in plakophilin-2,” Circulation, vol. 113, no. 13, 2006, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.568642.

212. S. W. Dubrey, “Amyloid heart disease: A brief review of treatment options,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 88, no. 1046. 2012. doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2012-130854.

213. R. H. Falk, A. Rubinow, and A. S. Cohen, “Cardiac arrhythmias in systemic amyloidosis: correlation with echocardiographic abnormalities,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 3, no. 1, 1984, doi: 10.1016/S0735-1097(84)80436-2.

214. A. V. Kristen et al., “Prophylactic implantation of cardioverterdefibrillator in patients with severe cardiac amyloidosis and high risk for sudden cardiac death,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 5, no. 2, 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2007.10.016.

215. G. Palladini et al., “Holter monitoring in AL amyloidosis: Prognostic implications,” PACE - Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol., vol. 24, no. 8, 2001, doi: 10.1046/j.1460-9592.2001.01228.x.

216. S. W. Dubrey, S. Bilazarian, M. LaValley, J. Reisinger, M. Skinner, and R. H. Falk, “Signal-averaged electrocardiography in patients with AL (primary) amyloidosis,” Am. Heart J., vol. 134, no. 6, 1997, doi: 10.1016/S0002-8703(97)70017-6.

217. J. Reisinger, S. W. Dubrey, M. Lavalley, M. Skinner, and R. H. Falk, “Electrophysiologic abnormalities in AL (primary) amyloidosis with cardiac involvement,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 30, no. 4, 1997, doi: 10.1016/S0735-1097(97)00267-2.

218. N. M. Ammash, J. B. Seward, K. R. Bailey, W. D. Edwards, and A. J. Tajik, “Clinical profile and outcome of idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy,” Circulation, vol. 101, no. 21, 2000, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.101.21.2490.

219. W. L. Gali et al., “Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for treatment of sustained ventricular arrhythmias in patients with Chagas’ heart disease: Comparison with a control group treated with amiodarone alone,” Europace, vol. 16, no. 5, 2014, doi: 10.1093/europace/eut422.

220. C. A. Muratore et al., “Implantable cardioverter defibrillators and Chagas’ disease: Results of the ICD Registry Latin America,” Europace, vol. 11, no. 2, 2009, doi: 10.1093/europace/eun325.

221. M. Martinelli et al., “Long-term follow-up of implantable cardioverterdefibrillator for secondary prevention in chagas’ heart disease,” Am. J. Cardiol., vol. 110, no. 7, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.05.040.

222. A. Cardinalli-Neto, R. B. Bestetti, J. A. Cordeiro, and V. C. Rodrigues, “Predictors of all-cause mortality for patients with chronic Chagas’ heart disease receiving implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 18, no. 12, 2007, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2007.00954.x.

223. M. P. T. Barbosa, M. O. Da Costa Rocha, A. B. De Oliveira, F. Lombardi, and A. L. P. Ribeiro, “Efficacy and safety of implantable cardioverter defibrillators in patients with Chagas disease,” Europace, vol. 15, no.7, 2013, doi: 10.1093/europace/eut011.

224. N. L. Bhatia, A. J. Tajik, S. Wilansky, D. E. Steidley, and F. Mookadam, “Isolated noncompaction of the left ventricular myocardium in adults: A systematic overview,” Journal of Cardiac Failure, vol. 17, no. 9. 2011. doi: 10.1016/j.cardfail.2011.05.002.

225. E. Oechslin and R. Jenni, “Left ventricular non-compaction revisited: A distinct phenotype with genetic heterogeneity?,” European Heart Journal, vol. 32, no. 12. 2011. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehq508.

226. C. Lofiego et al., “Wide spectrum of presentation and variable outcomes of isolated left ventricular non-compaction,” Heart, vol. 93, no. 1, 2007, doi: 10.1136/hrt.2006.088229.

227. R. T. Murphy et al., “Natural history and familial characteristics of isolated left ventricular non-compaction,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 26, no. 2, 2005, doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehi025.

228. J. L. Zamorano et al., “2014 ESC guidelines on diagnosis and management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: The task force for the diagnosis and management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” European Heart Journal, vol. 35, no. 39. 2014. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehu284.

229. C. O’Mahony et al., “A validation study of the 2003 American College of Cardiology/European Society of Cardiology and 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association risk stratification and treatment algorithms for sudden cardiac death in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Heart, vol. 99, no. 8, 2013, doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2012-303271.

230. C. O’Mahony et al., “The long-term survival and the risks and benefits of implantable cardioverter defibrillators in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Heart, vol. 98, no. 2, 2012, doi: 10.1136/hrt.2010.217182.

231. M. Brignole et al., “2013 ESC Guidelines on cardiac pacing and cardiac resynchronization therapy: The Task Force on cardiac pacing and resynchronization therapy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association ,” Europace, 2013, doi: 10.1093/europace/eut206.

232. P. M. Elliott, S. Sharma, A. Varnava, J. Poloniecki, E. Rowland, and W. J. McKenna, “Survival after cardiac arrest or sustained ventricular tachycardia in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 33, no. 6, 1999, doi: 10.1016/S0735-1097(99)00056-X.

233. F. Cecchi, B. J. Maron, and S. E. Epstein, “Long-term outcome of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 13, no. 6, 1989, doi: 10.1016/0735-1097(89)90302-1.

234. B. J. Maron et al., “Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and prevention of sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” J. Am. Med. Assoc., vol. 298, no. 4, 2007, doi: 10.1001/jama.298.4.405.

235. P. Syska et al., “Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Efficacy and complications of the therapy in long-term follow-up,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 21, no. 8, 2010, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2009.01716.x.

236. C. O’Mahony et al., “A novel clinical risk prediction model for sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM Risk-SCD),” Eur. Heart J., vol. 35, no. 30, 2014, doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht439.

237. J. Kron et al., “Efficacy and safety of implantable cardiac defibrillators for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis,” Europace, vol. 15, no. 3, 2013, doi: 10.1093/europace/eus316.

238. A. Mohsen et al., “Cardiac sarcoidosis: Electrophysiological outcomes on long-term follow-up and the role of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 25, no. 2, 2014, doi: 10.1111/jce.12302.

239. J. L. Schuller et al., “Implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 23, no. 9, 2012, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2012.02350.x.

240. R. Kandolin et al., “Cardiac sarcoidosis: Epidemiology, characteristics, and outcome over 25 years in a nationwide study,” Circulation, vol. 131, no. 7, 2015, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.011522.

241. Y. Yazaki et al., “Prognostic determinants of long-term survival in Japanese patients with cardiac sarcoidosis treated with prednisone,” Am. J. Cardiol., vol. 88, no. 9, 2001, doi: 10.1016/S0002-9149(01)01978-6.

242. G. C. Coleman et al., “Prognostic Value of Myocardial Scarring on CMR in Patients With Cardiac Sarcoidosis,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging, vol. 10, no. 4, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2016.05.009.

243. R. Blankstein et al., “Cardiac positron emission tomography enhances prognostic assessments of patients with suspected cardiac sarcoidosis,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 63, no. 4, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.09.022.

244. D. Mehta, N. Mori, S. H. Goldbarg, S. Lubitz, J. P. Wisnivesky, and A. Teirstein, “Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in silent cardiac sarcoidosis role of programmed ventricular stimulation,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 4, no. 1, 2011, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.110.958322.

245. G. Murtagh et al., “Prognosis of myocardial damage in sarcoidosis patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction: Risk stratification using cardiovascular magnetic resonance,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Imaging, vol. 9, no. 1, 2016, doi: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.115.003738.

246. T. Crawford et al., “Magnetic resonance imaging for identifying patients with cardiac sarcoidosis and preserved or mildly reduced left ventricular function at risk of ventricular arrhythmias,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 7, no. 6, 2014, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.113.000156.

247. S. Greulich et al., “CMR imaging predicts death and other adverse events in suspected cardiac sarcoidosis,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging, vol. 6, no. 4, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2012.10.021.

248. A. Aizer, E. H. Stern, J. A. Gomes, A. S. Teirstein, R. E. Eckart, and D. Mehta, “Usefulness of programmed ventricular stimulation in predicting future arrhythmic events in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis,” Am. J. Cardiol., vol. 96, no. 2, 2005, doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.03.059.

249. R. H. Mehta et al., “Incidence of and outcomes associated with ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” JAMA - J. Am. Med. Assoc., vol. 301, no. 17, 2009, doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.600.

250. Y. Takaya, K. F. Kusano, K. Nakamura, and H. Ito, “Outcomes in patients with high-degree atrioventricular block as the initial manifestation of cardiac sarcoidosis,” Am. J. Cardiol., vol. 115, no. 4, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.11.028.

251. W. J. Groh, “Arrhythmias in the muscular dystrophies,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 9, no. 11, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2012.06.038.

252. F. Anselme et al., “Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in lamin A/C mutation carriers with cardiac conduction disorders,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 10, no. 10, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2013.06.020.

253. C. Meune, J. H. Van Berlo, F. Anselme, G. Bonne, Y. M. Pinto, and D. Duboc, “Primary Prevention of Sudden Death in Patients with Lamin A/C Gene Mutations,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 354, no. 2, 2006, doi: 10.1056/nejmc052632.

254. S. Kumar et al., “Long-Term Arrhythmic and Nonarrhythmic Outcomes of Lamin A/C Mutation Carriers,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 68, no. 21, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.08.058.

255. V. Russo and G. Nigro, “ICD role in preventing sudden cardiac death in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy with preserved myocardial function: 2013 ESC Guidelines on Cardiac Pacing and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy,” Europace, vol. 17, no. 2. 2014. doi: 10.1093/europace/euu146.

256. W. J. Groh et al., “Electrocardiographic Abnormalities and Sudden Death in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 358, no. 25, 2008, doi: 10.1056/nejmoa062800.

257. D. Bhakta, C. Shen, J. Kron, A. E. Epstein, R. M. Pascuzzi, and W. J. Groh, “Pacemaker and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator use in a US myotonic dystrophy type 1 population,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 22, no. 12, 2011, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2011.02200.x.

258. A. H. Ha, M. A. Tarnopolsky, T. G. Bergstra, G. M. Nair, A. Al-Qubbany, and J. S. Healey, “Predictors of atrio-ventricular conduction disease, long-term outcomes in patients with myotonic dystrophy types I and II.,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol., vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 1262–1269, Oct. 2012, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8159.2012.03351.x.

259. D. Bhakta, M. R. Groh, C. Shen, R. M. Pascuzzi, and W. J. Groh, “Increased mortality with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure in adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1,” Am. Heart J., vol. 160, no. 6, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2010.07.032.

260. J. L. Merino, J. R. Carmona, I. Fernández-Lozano, R. Peinado, N. Basterra, and J. A. Sobrino, “Mechanisms of sustained ventricular tachycardia in myotonic dystrophy: Implications for catheter ablation,” Circulation, vol. 98, no. 6, 1998, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.98.6.541.

261. V. Laurent et al., “Mortality in myotonic dystrophy patients in the area of prophylactic pacing devices,” Int. J. Cardiol., vol. 150, no. 1, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2010.02.029.

262. K. Wahbi et al., “Electrophysiological study with prophylactic pacing and survival in adults with myotonic dystrophy and conduction system disease,” JAMA - J. Am. Med. Assoc., vol. 307, no. 12, 2012, doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.346.

263. B. K. Martinez et al., “Systematic review and meta-analysis of catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in ischemic heart disease,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 17, no. 1, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2019.04.024.

264. Z. Ling et al., “Radiofrequency ablation versus antiarrhythmic medication for treatment of ventricular premature beats from the right ventricular outflow tract prospective randomized study,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 7, no. 2, 2014, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.113.000805.

265. F. Bogun et al., “Radiofrequency ablation of frequent, idiopathic premature ventricular complexes: Comparison with a control group without intervention,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 4, no. 7, 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2007.03.003.

266. H. Chen et al., “Intramural outflow tract ventricular tachycardia anatomy, mapping, and ablation,” Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, vol. 7, no. 5. 2014. doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.114.001744.

267. B. Frey, G. Kreiner, S. Fritsch, F. Veit, and H. D. Gössinger, “Successful treatment of idiopathic left ventricular outflow tract tachycardia by catheter ablation or minimally invasive surgical cryoablation,” PACE - Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol., vol. 23, no. 5, 2000, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8159.2000.tb00857.x.

268. S. D. Solomon et al., “Sudden Death in Patients with Myocardial Infarction and Left Ventricular Dysfunction, Heart Failure, or Both,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 352, no. 25, 2005, doi: 10.1056/nejmoa043938.

269. L. J. Gula et al., “Ejection fraction assessment and survival: An analysis of the Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT),” Am. Heart J., vol. 156, no. 6, 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2008.08.007.

270. G. D. Aquaro, A. Pingitore, E. Strata, G. Di Bella, S. Molinaro, and M. Lombardi, “Cardiac magnetic resonance predicts outcome in patients with premature ventricular complexes of left bundle branch block morphology,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 56, no. 15, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.03.087.

271. M. Yokokawa et al., “Value of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and programmed ventricular stimulation in patients with frequent premature ventricular complexes undergoing radiofrequency ablation,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 14, no. 11, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2017.06.040.

272. S. Niwano et al., “Prognostic significance of frequent premature ventricular contractions originating from the ventricular outflow tract in patients with normal left ventricular function,” Heart, vol. 95, no. 15, 2009, doi: 10.1136/hrt.2008.159558.

273. W. Shimizu, “Arrhythmias originating from the right ventricular outflow tract: How to distinguish ‘malignant’ from ‘benign’?,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 6, no. 10, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2009.06.017.

274. R. Krittayaphong et al., “Electrocardiographic predictors of long term outcomes after radiofrequency ablation in patients with right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia,” Europace, vol. 8, no. 8, 2006, doi: 10.1093/europace/eul067.

275. Z. Liao et al., “Idiopathic Ventricular Arrhythmias Originating from the Pulmonary Sinus Cusp Prevalence, Electrocardiographic/ Electrophysiological Characteristics, and Catheter Ablation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 66, no. 23, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.09.094.

276. M. E. Krebs, P. C. Krause, E. D. Engelstein, D. P. Zipes, and W. M. Miles, “Ventricular tachycardias mimicking those arising from the right ventricular outflow tract,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 11, no. 1, 2000, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2000.tb00735.x.

277. K. Kumagai et al., “Electrocardiographic characteristics of the variants of idiopathic left ventricular outflow tract ventricular tachyarrhythmias,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 19, no. 5, 2008, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2007.01085.x.

278. T. S. Baman et al., “Mapping and ablation of epicardial idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias from within the coronary venous system,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 3, no. 3, 2010, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.109.910802.

279. P. Santangeli et al., “Percutaneous epicardial ablation of ventricular arrhythmias arising from the left ventricular summit: outcomes and electrocardiogram correlates of success.,” Circ. Arrhythm. Electrophysiol., vol. 8, no. 2, 2015.

280. F. Zhang et al., “Magnetic versus manual catheter navigation for mapping and ablation of right ventricular outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias: A randomized controlled study,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 10, no. 8, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2013.05.012.

281. M. Vestal, M. S. Wen, S. J. Yeh, C. C. Wang, F. C. Lin, and D. Wu, “Electrocardiographic Predictors of Failure and Recurrence in Patients with Idiopathic Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Tachycardia and Ectopy Who Underwent Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation,” J. Electrocardiol., vol. 36, no. 4, 2003, doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2003.08.006.

282. K. Miyazawa et al., “Rapid mapping and differentiation in ventricular outflow tract arrhythmia using non-contact mapping,” J. Interv. Card. Electrophysiol., vol. 49, no. 1, 2017, doi: 10.1007/s10840-017-0250-x.

283. C. Akdeniz, E. E. Gul, N. Celik, M. Karacan, and V. Tuzcu, “Catheter ablation of idiopathic right ventricular arrhythmias in children with limited fluoroscopy,” J. Interv. Card. Electrophysiol., vol. 46, no. 3, 2016, doi: 10.1007/s10840-016-0133-6.

284. F. Morady et al., “Long-term results of catheter ablation of idiopathic right ventricular tachycardia,” Circulation, vol. 82, no. 6, 1990, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.82.6.2093.

285. A. W. Teh et al., “Bipolar radiofrequency catheter ablation for refractory ventricular outflow tract arrhythmias,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 25, no. 10, 2014, doi: 10.1111/jce.12460.

286. J. Lamba, D. P. Redfearn, K. A. Michael, C. S. Simpson, H. Abdollah, and A. Baranchuk, “Radiofrequency catheter ablation for the treatment of idiopathic premature ventricular contractions originating from the right ventricular outflow tract: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” PACE - Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol., vol. 37, no. 1, 2014, doi: 10.1111/pace.12243.

287. R. Latchamsetty et al., “Multicenter outcomes for catheter ablation of idiopathic premature ventricular complexes,” JACC Clin. Electrophysiol., vol. 1, no. 3, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.jacep.2015.04.005.

288. D. L. Coggins et al., “Radiofrequency catheter ablation as a cure for idiopathic tachycardia of both left and eight ventricular origin,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 23, no. 6, 1994, doi: 10.1016/0735-1097(94)90375-1.

289. M. S. Wen, S. J. Yeh, C. C. Wang, F. C. Lin, I. C. Chen, and D. Wu, “Radiofrequency ablation therapy in idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia with no obvious structural heart disease,” Circulation, vol. 89, no. 4, 1994, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.89.4.1690.

290. C. Movsowitz et al., “Idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia: Narrowing the anatomic location for successful ablation,” Am. Heart J., vol. 131, no. 5, 1996, doi: 10.1016/S0002-8703(96)90175-1.

291. S. Kamakura et al., “Localization of optimal ablation site of idiopathic ventricular tachycardia from right and left ventricular outflow tract by body surface ECG,” Circulation, vol. 98, no. 15, 1998, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.98.15.1525.

292. T. Yamada et al., “Electrocardiographic characteristics of ventricular arrhythmias originating from the junction of the left and right coronary sinuses of Valsalva in the aorta: The activation pattern as a rationale for the electrocardiographic characteristics,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 5, no. 2, 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2007.09.029.

293. H. Tada et al., “Significance of two potentials for predicting successful catheter ablation from the left sinus of Valsalva for left ventricular epicardial tachycardia,” PACE - Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol., vol. 27, no. 8, 2004, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8159.2004.00584.x.

294. F. Ouyang et al., “Repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardia originating from the aortic sinus cusp: Electrocardiographic characterization for guiding catheter ablation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 39, no. 3, 2002, doi: 10.1016/S0735-1097(01)01767-3.

295. S. E. Mountantonakis et al., “Reversal of outflow tract ventricular premature depolarization-induced cardiomyopathy with ablation: effect of residual arrhythmia burden and preexisting cardiomyopathy on outcome.,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1608–1614, Oct. 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2011.04.026.

296. M. Zang, T. Zhang, J. Mao, S. Zhou, and B. He, “Beneficial effects of catheter ablation of frequent premature ventricular complexes on left ventricular function,” Heart, vol. 100, no. 10, 2014, doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2013-305175.

297. A. Lee, R. Denman, and H. M. Haqqani, “Ventricular Ectopy in the Context of Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction: Risk Factors and Outcomes Following Catheter Ablation,” Hear. Lung Circ., vol. 28, no. 3, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2018.01.012.

298. M. Takemoto et al., “Radiofrequency catheter ablation of premature ventricular complexes from right ventricular outflow tract improves left ventricular dilation and clinical status in patients without structural heart disease,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 45, no. 8, 2005, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2004.12.073.

299. R. K. Yarlagadda et al., “Reversal of cardiomyopathy in patients with repetitive monomorphic ventricular ectopy originating from the right ventricular outflow tract,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 8, 2005, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.546432.

300. A. P. Wijnmaalen et al., “Beneficial effects of catheter ablation on left ventricular and right ventricular function in patients with frequent premature ventricular contractions and preserved ejection fraction,” Heart, vol. 96, no. 16, 2010, doi: 10.1136/hrt.2009.188722.

301. H. Calkins, S. J. Kalbfleisch, R. El-Atassi, J. J. Langberg, and F. Morady, “Relation between efficacy of radiofrequency catheter ablation and site of origin of idiopathic ventricular tachycardia,” Am. J. Cardiol., vol. 71, no. 10, 1993, doi: 10.1016/0002-9149(93)90832-W.

302. L. M. Rodriguez, J. L. R. M. Smeets, C. Timmermans, and H. J. J. Wellens, “Predictors for successful ablation of right- and left-sided idiopathic ventricular tachycardia,” Am. J. Cardiol., vol. 79, no. 3, 1997, doi: 10.1016/S0002-9149(96)00753-9.

303. M. R. Dweck et al., “Hybrid Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Positron Emission Tomography With Fluorodeoxyglucose to Diagnose Active Cardiac Sarcoidosis,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging, vol. 11, no. 1, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2017.02.021.

304. T. Li et al., “Combined approach improves the outcomes of catheter ablation of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias originating from the vicinity of tricuspid annulus,” PACE - Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol., vol. 37, no. 5, 2014, doi: 10.1111/pace.12341.

305. Y. Komatsu et al., “Catheter ablation of ventricular arrhythmias arising from the right ventricular septum close to the his bundle: Features of the local electrogram at the optimal ablation site,” Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol. 22, no. 8. 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2011.02014.x.

306. T. Yamada, V. J. Plumb, H. T. McElderry, H. Doppalapudi, A. E. Epstein, and G. N. Kay, “Focal ventricular arrhythmias originating from the left ventricle adjacent to the membranous septum,” Europace, vol. 12, no. 10, 2010, doi: 10.1093/europace/euq259.

307. H. Q. Wei et al., “Safety and efficacy of catheter ablation of ventricular arrhythmias with para-Hisian origin via a systematic direct approach from the aortic sinus cusp,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 15, no. 11, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2018.05.021.

308. Y. Yamauchi et al., “Electrocardiographic characteristics of repetitive monomorphic right ventricular tachycardia originating near the His bundle,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 16, no. 10, 2005, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2005.40787.x.

309. Y. Komatsu et al., “Two distinct electrocardiographic forms of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia originating in the vicinity of the His bundle,” Europace, vol. 14, no. 12, 2012, doi: 10.1093/europace/eus160.

310. A. Enriquez et al., “How to map and ablate parahisian ventricular arrhythmias,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 15, no. 8, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2018.02.028.

311. R. Bala et al., “Electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic features of ventricular arrhythmias originating from the right/left coronary cusp commissure,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 7, no. 3, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2009.11.017.

312. H. Tada et al., “Left ventricular epicardial outflow tract tachycardia - A new distinct subgroup of outflow tract tachycardia,” Jpn. Circ. J., vol. 65, no. 8, 2001, doi: 10.1253/jcj.65.723.

313. T. P. Carrigan et al., “Anatomic relationships between the coronary venous system, surrounding structures, and the site of origin of epicardial ventricular arrhythmias,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 25, no. 12, 2014, doi: 10.1111/jce.12497.

314. K. Nagashima et al., “Ventricular arrhythmias near the distal great cardiac vein challenging arrhythmia for ablation,” Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, vol. 7, no. 5. 2014. doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.114.001615.

315. M. M. Sadek et al., “Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias originating from the moderator band: Electrocardiographic characteristics and treatment by catheter ablation,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 12, no. 1, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2014.08.029.

316. J. F. Sarrazin et al., “Impact of radiofrequency ablation of frequent post-infarction premature ventricular complexes on left ventricular ejection fraction,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 6, no. 11, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2009.08.004.

317. M. El Kadri et al., “Effect of ablation of frequent premature ventricular complexes on left ventricular function in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 12, no. 4, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2014.12.017.

318. M. Haïssaguerre et al., “Mapping and ablation of ventricular fibrillation associated with long-QT and Brugada syndromes,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 8, 2003, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000088781.99943.95.

319. S. Knecht et al., “Long-Term Follow-Up of Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation Ablation. A Multicenter Study,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 54, no. 6, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.03.065.

320. P. Peichl, R. Čihák, M. Koželuhová, D. Wichterle, V. Vančura, and J. Kautzner, “Catheter ablation of arrhythmic storm triggered by monomorphic ectopic beats in patients with coronary artery disease,” J. Interv. Card. Electrophysiol., vol. 27, no. 1, 2010, doi: 10.1007/s10840-009-9443-2.

321. M. Haïssaguerre et al., “Mapping and ablation of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 8, 2002, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000027564.55739.B1.

322. D. Lakkireddy et al., “Radiofrequency ablation of premature ventricular ectopy improves the efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy in nonresponders,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 60, no. 16, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.06.035.

323. J. L. Sapp et al., “Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation versus Escalation of Antiarrhythmic Drugs,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 375, no. 2, 2016, doi: 10.1056/nejmoa1513614.

324. F. E. Marchlinski et al., “Long-term success of irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation of sustained ventricular tachycardia: Post-approval THERMOCOOL VT trial,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 67, no. 6, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.11.041.

325. C. Carbucicchio et al., “Catheter ablation for the treatment of electrical storm in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators : Short-and long-term outcomes in a prospective single-center study,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 4, 2008, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.686534.

326. T. Deneke et al., “Catheter ablation of electrical storm in a collaborative hospital network,” Am. J. Cardiol., vol. 108, no. 2, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.03.030.

327. D. Muser et al., “Long-Term Outcomes of Catheter Ablation of Electrical Storm in Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Compared With Ischemic Cardiomyopathy,” JACC Clin. Electrophysiol., vol. 3, no. 7, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.jacep.2017.01.020.

328. B. Dinov et al., “Outcomes in catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in dilated nonischemic cardiomyopathy compared with ischemic cardiomyopathy: Results from the prospective heart centre of leipzig vt,” Circulation, vol. 129, no. 7, 2014, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.003063.

329. S. Kumar et al., “Multicenter Experience with Catheter Ablation for Ventricular Tachycardia in Lamin A/C Cardiomyopathy,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 9, no. 8, 2016, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.116.004357.

330. L. Di Biase et al., “Endo-epicardial homogenization of the scar versus limited substrate ablation for the treatment of electrical storms in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 60, no. 2, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.03.044.

331. A. Arya et al., “Catheter ablation of electrical storm due to monomorphic ventricular tachycardia in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy: Acute results and its effect on long-term survival,” PACE - Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol., vol. 33, no. 12, 2010, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8159.2010.02835.x.

332. S. Kumar et al., “Beyond the Storm: Comparison of Clinical Factors, Arrhythmogenic Substrate, and Catheter Ablation Outcomes in Structural Heart Disease Patients With versus Those Without a History of Ventricular Tachycardia Storm,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 28, no. 1, 2017, doi: 10.1111/jce.13117.

333. S. Nayyar, A. N. Ganesan, A. G. Brooks, T. Sullivan, K. C. Roberts-Thomson, and P. Sanders, “Venturing into ventricular arrhythmia storm: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” European Heart Journal, vol. 34, no. 8. 2013. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs453.

334. S. R. D. Piers, Q. Tao, C. F. B. Van Huls Van Taxis, M. J. Schalij, R. J. Van Der Geest, and K. Zeppenfeld, “Contrast-enhanced MRI-derived scar patterns and associated ventricular tachycardias in nonischemic cardiomyopathy: Implications for the ablation strategy,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 6, no. 5, 2013, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.113.000537.

335. V. Y. Reddy et al., “Prophylactic Catheter Ablation for the Prevention of Defibrillator Therapy,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 357, no. 26, 2007, doi: 10.1056/nejmoa065457.

336. K. H. Kuck et al., “Catheter ablation of stable ventricular tachycardia before defibrillator implantation in patients with coronary heart disease (VTACH): a multicentre randomised controlled trial,” Lancet, vol. 375, no. 9708, 2010, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61755-4.

337. S. M. Al-Khatib et al., “Catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (CALYPSO) pilot trial,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 26, no. 2, 2015, doi: 10.1111/jce.12567.

338. K. H. Kuck et al., “Impact of substrate modification by catheter ablation on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator interventions in patients with unstable ventricular arrhythmias and coronary artery disease: Results from the multicenter randomized controlled SMS (Substrate Modification Study),” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 10, no. 3, 2017, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.116.004422.

339. L. Littmann et al., “Functional role of the epicardium in postinfarction ventricular tachycardia. Observations derived from computerized epicardial activation mapping, entrainment, and epicardial laser photoablation,” Circulation, vol. 83, no. 5, 1991, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.83.5.1577.

340. E. Sosa, M. Scanavacca, A. D’Avila, F. Oliveira, and J. A. F. Ramires, “Nonsurgical transthoracic epicardial catheter ablation to treat recurrent ventricular tachycardia occurring late after myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 35, no. 6, 2000, doi: 10.1016/S0735-1097(00)00606-9.

341. B. Schmidt et al., “Catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia after failed endocardial ablation: Epicardial substrate or inappropriate endocardial ablation?,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 7, no. 12, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2010.08.010.

342. M. Izquierdo et al., “Endo-Epicardial Versus Only-Endocardial Ablation as a First Line Strategy for the Treatment of Ventricular Tachycardia in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 8, no. 4, 2015, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.115.002827.

343. D. Muser et al., “Long-Term Outcome after Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia in Patients with Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 9, no. 10, 2016, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.116.004328.

344. R. Proietti et al., “Substrate-guided ablation of haemodynamically tolerated and untolerated ventricular tachycardia in patients with structural heart disease: Effect of cardiomyopathy type and acute success on long-term outcome,” Europace, vol. 17, no. 3, 2015, doi: 10.1093/europace/euu326.

345. B. Dinov et al., “Early referral for ablation of scar-related ventricular tachycardia is associated with improved acute and long-term outcomes: Results from the heart center of leipzig ventricular tachycardia registry,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 7, no. 6, 2014, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.114.001953.

346. M. Tokuda et al., “Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic heart disease,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 5, no. 5, 2012, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.112.971341.

347. R. Tung et al., “Freedom from recurrent ventricular tachycardia after catheter ablation is associated with improved survival in patients with structural heart disease: An International VT Ablation Center Collaborative Group study,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 12, no. 9, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2015.05.036.

348. J. Hu et al., “Can ventricular tachycardia non-inducibility after ablation predict reduced ventricular tachycardia recurrence and mortality in patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy? A meta-analysis of twenty-four observational studies,” Int. J. Cardiol., vol. 222, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.07.200.

349. P. Della Bella et al., “Epicardial ablation for ventricular tachycardia: A European multicenter study,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 4, no. 5, 2011, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.111.962217.

350. F. Sacher et al., “Epicardial Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation. A Multicenter Safety Study,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 55, no. 21, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.10.084.

351. O. Cano et al., “Electroanatomic Substrate and Ablation Outcome for Suspected Epicardial Ventricular Tachycardia in Left Ventricular Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 54, no. 9, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.05.032.

352. D. Jefic et al., “Role of radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in cardiac sarcoidosis: Report from a multicenter registry,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 6, no. 2, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2008.10.039.

353. Y. Naruse et al., “Systematic treatment approach to ventricular tachycardia in cardiac sarcoidosis,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 7, no. 3, 2014, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.113.000734.

354. S. Kumar et al., “Ventricular tachycardia in cardiac sarcoidosis: Characterization of ventricular substrate and outcomes of catheter ablation,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 8, no. 1, 2015, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.114.002145.

355. D. Muser et al., “Long-Term Outcomes of Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia in Patients with Cardiac Sarcoidosis,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 9, no. 8, 2016, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.116.004333.

356. N. Papageorgiou et al., “Catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis: A systematic review,” Europace, vol. 20, no. 4. 2018. doi: 10.1093/europace/eux077.

357. T. J. Cohen et al., “Radiofrequency catheter ablation for treatment of bundle branch reentrant ventricular tachycardia: Results and long-term follow-up,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 18, no. 7, 1991, doi: 10.1016/0735-1097(91)90519-F.

358. B. Z. et al., “Bundle branch reentrant ventricular tachycardia: Cumulative experience in 48 patients,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 4, no. 3, 1993.

359. A. A. MEHDIRAD, S. KEIM, K. RIST, and P. TCHOU, “Long Term Clinical Outcome of Right Bundle Branch Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation for Treatment of Bundle Branch Reentrant Ventricular Tachycardia,” Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol., vol. 18, no. 12, 1995, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8159.1995.tb04638.x.

360. R. K. Pathak et al., “Long-Term Outcome of Catheter Ablation for Treatment of Bundle Branch Re-Entrant Tachycardia,” JACC Clin. Electrophysiol., vol. 4, no. 3, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jacep.2017.11.021.

361. C. Narasimhan et al., “Ventricular tachycardia in valvular heart disease facilitation of sustained bundle-branch reentry by valve surgery,” Circulation, vol. 96, no. 12, 1997, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.96.12.4307.

362. Y. G. Li, G. Grönefeld, C. Israel, F. Bogun, and S. H. Hohnloser, “Bundle branch reentrant tachycardia in patients with apparent normal His-Purkinje conduction: The role of functional conduction impairment,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 13, no. 12, 2002, doi: 10.1046/j.1540-8167.2002.01233.x.

363. B. Schmidt et al., “Left bundle branch-Purkinje system in patients with bundle branch reentrant tachycardia: Lessons from catheter ablation and electroanatomic mapping,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 6, no. 1, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2008.09.028.

364. Z. Blanck, M. Jazayeri, A. Dhala, S. Deshpande, J. Sra, and M. Akhtar, “Bundle branch reentry: A mechanism of ventricular tachycardia in the absence of myocardial or valvular dysfunction,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 22, no. 6, 1993, doi: 10.1016/0735-1097(93)90602-W.

365. H. Chen et al., “Electrophysiological Characteristics of Bundle Branch Reentry Ventricular Tachycardia in Patients Without Structural Heart Disease,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 11, no. 7, 2018, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.117.006049.

366. X. G. Guo et al., “Clinical, electrocardiographic, and electrophysiological characteristics of left upper septal fascicular ventricular tachycardia,” Europace, vol. 20, no. 4, 2018, doi: 10.1093/europace/euw429.

367. C. Pappone et al., “Electrical Substrate Elimination in 135 Consecutive Patients with Brugada Syndrome,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 10, no. 5, 2017, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.117.005053.

368. J. Brugada et al., “Brugada Syndrome Phenotype Elimination by Epicardial Substrate Ablation,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 8, no. 6, 2015, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.115.003220.

369. P. Zhang et al., “Characterization of the epicardial substrate for catheter ablation of Brugada syndrome,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 13, no. 11, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2016.07.025.

370. K. Nademanee et al., “Prevention of ventricular fibrillation episodes in brugada syndrome by catheter ablation over the anterior right ventricular outflow tract epicardium,” Circulation, vol. 123, no. 12, 2011, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.972612.

371. C. Mavroudis, B. J. Deal, C. L. Backer, and S. Tsao, “Arrhythmia Surgery in Patients With and Without Congenital Heart Disease,” Ann. Thorac. Surg., vol. 86, no. 3, 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2008.04.087.

372. A. Sandhu et al., “Perioperative electrophysiology study in patients with tetralogy of Fallot undergoing pulmonary valve replacement will identify those at high risk of subsequent ventricular tachycardia,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 15, no. 5, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2018.01.020.

373. V. Babokin, V. Shipulin, R. Batalov, and S. Popov, “Surgical ventricular reconstruction with endocardectomy along radiofrequency ablation induced markings,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., vol. 146, no. 5, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.08.067.

374. U. Sartipy, A. Albåge, P. Insulander, and D. Lindblom, “Surgery for ventricular tachycardia in patients undergoing surgical ventricular restoration: The Karolinska approach,” Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology, vol. 19, no. 3. 2007. doi: 10.1007/s10840-007-9152-7.

375. Р. А.Ш., Клинические рекомендации по проведению электрофизиологических исследований, катетерной абляции и применению имплантируемых антиаритмических устройств. Москва: Новое издательство, 2017.

376. M. E. Josephson, A. H. Harken, and L. N. Horowitz, “Endocardial excision: A new surgical technique for the treatment of recurrent ventricular tachycardia,” Circulation, vol. 60, no. 7, 1979, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.60.7.1430.

377. V. Dor, M. Sabatier, F. Montigho, P. Rossi, A. Toso, and M. Di Donato, “Results of nonguided subtotal endocardiectomy associated with left ventricular reconstruction in patients with ischemic ventricular arrhythmias,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., vol. 107, no. 5, 1994, doi: 10.1016/S0022-5223(94)70051-6.

378. P. J. Schwartz et al., “Left Cardiac Sympathetic Denervation in the Management of High-Risk Patients Affected by the Long-QT Syndrome,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 15, 2004, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000125523.14403.1E.

379. C. A. Collura, J. N. Johnson, C. Moir, and M. J. Ackerman, “Left cardiac sympathetic denervation for the treatment of long QT syndrome and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia using video assisted thoracic surgery,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 6, no. 6, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2009.03.024.

380. A. Odero, A. Bozzani, G. M. De Ferrari, and P. J. Schwartz, “Left cardiac sympathetic denervation for the prevention of life-threatening arrhythmias: The surgical supraclavicular approach to cervicothoracic sympathectomy,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 7, no. 8, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2010.03.046.

381. P. J. Schwartz, A. J. Moss, G. M. Vincent, and R. S. Crampton, “Diagnostic criteria for the long QT syndrome: An update,” Circulation, vol. 88, no. 2. 1993. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.88.2.782.

382. A. J. Moss et al., “The long QT syndrome. Prospective longitudinal study of 328 families,” Circulation, vol. 84, no. 3, 1991, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.84.3.1136.

383. Школьникова М.А., Харлап М.С., Ильдарова Р.А., “Генетически детерминированные нарушения ритма сердца.,” Российский кардиологический журнал., vol. 1, no. 87, pp. 8–25, 2011.

384. H. L. Nguyen, G. H. Pieper, and R. Wilders, “Andersen-Tawil syndrome: Clinical and molecular aspects,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 170, no. 1. 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.10.010.

385. R. Bauer, K. W. Timothy, and A. Golden, “Update on the Molecular Genetics of Timothy Syndrome,” Frontiers in Pediatrics, vol. 9. 2021. doi: 10.3389/fped.2021.668546.

386. P. J. Schwartz et al., “Genotype-phenotype correlation in the long-QT syndrome: gene-specific triggers for life-threatening arrhythmias.,” Circulation, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 89–95, Jan. 2001, doi: 10.1161/01.cir.103.1.89.

387. S. G. Priori, C. Napolitano, and P. J. Schwartz, “Association of long QT syndrome loci and cardiac events among patients treated with β-blockers,” ACC Curr. J. Rev., vol. 13, no. 12, 2004, doi: 10.1016/j.accreview.2004.11.040.

388. P. J. Schwartz et al., “Who Are the Long-QT Syndrome Patients Who Receive an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator and What Happens to Them? Data From the European Long-QT Syndrome Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (LQTS ICD) Registry,” 2010, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.950147.

389. P. J. Schwartz et al., “Long QT syndrome patients with mutations of the SCN5A and HERG genes have differential responses to Na+ channel blockade and to increases in heart rate. Implications for gene specific therapy.,” Circulation, vol. 92, no. 12, pp. 3381–3386, Dec. 1995, doi: 10.1161/01.cir.92.12.3381.

390. A. J. Moss, W. Zareba, K. Q. Schwarz, S. Rosero, S. Mcnitt, and J. L. Robinson, “Ranolazine shortens repolarization in patients with sustained inward sodium current due to type-3 long-QT syndrome,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 19, no. 12, 2008, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2008.01246.x.

391. J. F. Liu et al., “Risk factors for recurrent syncope and subsequent fatal or near-fatal events in children and adolescents with long QT syndrome,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 57, no. 8, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.10.025.

392. R. Seth et al., “Long QT Syndrome and Pregnancy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 49, no. 10, 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2006.09.054.

393. I. Goldenberg et al., “Risk for life-threatening cardiac events in patients with genotype-confirmed long-QT syndrome and normal-range corrected QT intervals,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 57, no. 1, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.07.038.

394. P. Khairy et al., “Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in tetralogy of Fallot,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 3, 2008, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.726372.

395. S. J. Fowler and S. G. Priori, “Clinical spectrum of patients with a Brugada ECG,” Current Opinion in Cardiology, vol. 24, no. 1. 2009. doi: 10.1097/HCO.0b013e32831cb920.

396. A. K. Gehi, T. D. Duong, L. D. Metz, J. A. Gomes, and D. Mehta, “Risk stratification of individuals with the Brugada electrocardiogram: a meta-analysis.,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 17, no. 6, 2006, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2006.00455.x.

397. L. Fauchier, M. A. Isorni, N. Clementy, B. Pierre, E. Simeon, and D. Babuty, “Prognostic value of programmed ventricular stimulation in Brugada syndrome according to clinical presentation: An updated meta-analysis of worldwide published data,” Int. J. Cardiol., vol. 168, no. 3, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.04.146.

398. S. G. Priori et al., “Risk stratification in brugada syndrome: Results of the PRELUDE (PRogrammed ELectrical stimUlation preDictive valuE) registry,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 59, no. 1, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.08.064.

399. P. Maury, M. Hocini, and M. Haïssaguerre, “Electrical storms in Brugada syndrome: Review of pharmacologic and ablative therapeutic options,” Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal, vol. 5, no. 1. 2005.

400. M. F. Márquez et al., “Long-term efficacy of low doses of quinidine on malignant arrhythmias in Brugada syndrome with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: A case series and literature review,” Hear. Rhythm, vol. 9, no. 12, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2012.08.027.

401. P. Coumel, “Catecholamine-induced severe ventricular arrhythmias with Adams-Stokes syndrome in children : report of four cases,” Heart, vol. 40, pp. 28–37, 1978.

402. A. Marjamaa et al., “Intravenous epinephrine infusion test in diagnosis of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol., vol. 23, no. 2, 2012, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2011.02188.x.

403. A. Leenhardt, V. Lucet, I. Denjoy, F. Grau, D. D. Ngoc, and P. Coumel, “Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in children. A 7-year follow-up of 21 patients.,” Circulation, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 1512– 1519, Mar. 1995, doi: 10.1161/01.cir.91.5.1512.

404. C. van der Werf et al., “Familial Evaluation in Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 5, no. 4, 2012, doi: 10.1161/circep.112.970517.

405. H. Watanabe et al., “Flecainide prevents catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in mice and humans,” Nat. Med., vol. 15, no. 4, 2009, doi: 10.1038/nm.1942.

406. L. R. A. Olde Nordkamp et al., “Left cardiac sympathetic denervation in the Netherlands for the treatment of inherited arrhythmia syndromes,” Netherlands Hear. J., vol. 22, no. 4, 2014, doi: 10.1007/s12471-014-0523-2.

407. S. C. Hofferberth, F. Cecchin, D. Loberman, and F. Fynn-Thompson, “Left thoracoscopic sympathectomy for cardiac denervation in patients with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias,” in Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 2014, vol. 147, no. 1. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2013.07.064.

408. F. I. Marcus et al., “Diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/Dysplasia: Proposed modification of the task force criteria,” Circulation, vol. 121, no. 13, 2010, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.840827.

409. C. Basso, D. Corrado, F. I. Marcus, A. Nava, and G. Thiene, “Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy,” Lancet, vol. 373, no. 9671, pp. 1289–1300, Apr. 2009, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60256-7.

410. S. Sen-Chowdhry et al., “Left-Dominant Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy. An Under-Recognized Clinical Entity,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 52, no. 25, 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2008.09.019.

411. C. Basso, D. Corrado, and G. Thiene, “Cardiovascular causes of sudden death in young individuals including athletes,” Cardiology in Review, vol. 7, no. 3. 1999. doi: 10.1097/00045415-199905000-00009.

412. A. Tabib et al., “Circumstances of Death and Gross and Microscopic Observations in a Series of 200 Cases of Sudden Death Associated with Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy and/or Dysplasia,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 24. 2003. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000108396.65446.21.

413. F. Marcus et al., “Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/ cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C): a multidisciplinary study: design and protocol.,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 23, pp. 2975–2978, Jun. 2003, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000071380.43086.29.

414. A. Nava et al., “Clinical profile and long-term follow-up of 37 families with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 36, no. 7, 2000, doi: 10.1016/S0735-1097(00)00997-9.

415. K. Nasir et al., “Electrocardiographic features of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy according to disease severity: A need to broaden diagnostic criteria,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 12, 2004, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000142293.60725.18.

416. M. S. Hamid et al., “Prospective evaluation of relatives for familial arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia reveals a need to broaden diagnostic criteria,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 40, no. 8, 2002, doi: 10.1016/S0735-1097(02)02307-0.

417. S. Sen-Chowdhry, P. Syrris, D. Ward, A. Asimaki, E. Sevdalis, and W. J. McKenna, “Clinical and genetic characterization of families with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy provides novel insights into patterns of disease expression,” Circulation, vol. 115, no. 13, 2007, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.660241.

418. K. S. Hoffmayer et al., “Electrocardiographic comparison of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 58, no. 8, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.05.017.

419. M. S. Link et al., “Ventricular arrhythmias in the North American multidisciplinary study of ARVC: Predictors, characteristics, and treatment,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 64, no. 2, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.04.035.

420. A. C. Ruwald et al., “Association of competitive and recreational sport participation with cardiac events in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: Results from the North American multidisciplinary study of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 36, no. 27, 2015, doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehv110.

421. G. M. Marcus et al., “Efficacy of Antiarrhythmic Drugs in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy. A Report From the North American ARVC Registry,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 54, no. 7, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.04.052.

422. T. Wichter, M. Borggrefe, W. Haverkamp, X. Chen, and G. Breithardt, “Efficacy of antiarrhythmic drugs in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular disease: Results in patients with inducible and noninducible ventricular tachycardia,” Circulation, vol. 86, no. 1, 1992, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.86.1.29.

423. A. Berruezo et al., “Combined endocardial and epicardial catheter ablation in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia incorporating scar dechanneling technique,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 5, no. 1, 2012, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.110.960740.

424. R. Bai et al., “Ablation of ventricular arrhythmias in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy: Arrhythmia-free survival after endo-epicardial substrate based mapping and ablationablation of ventricular arrhythmias in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy arrhythmia-free survival after endo epicardial substrate based mapping and ablation,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 4, no. 4, 2011, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.111.963066.

425. B. Philips et al., “Outcomes of catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/ cardiomyopathy,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol., vol. 5, no. 3, 2012, doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.111.968677.

426. D. Dalal et al., “Long-Term Efficacy of Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia in Patients With Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 50, no. 5, 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2007.03.049.

427. A. Verma et al., “Short- and long-term success of substrate-based mapping and ablation of ventricular tachycardia in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia,” Circulation, vol. 111, no. 24, 2005, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.510503.

428. H. Heidbüchel et al., “High prevalence of right ventricular involvement in endurance athletes with ventricular arrhythmias: Role of an electrophysiologic study in risk stratification,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 24, no. 16, 2003, doi: 10.1016/S0195-668X(03)00282-3.

429. A. Pelliccia et al., “Recommendations for participation in competitive sport and leisure-time physical activity in individuals with cardiomyopathies, myocarditis and pericarditis,” Eur. J. Prev. Cardiol., vol. 13, no. 6, 2006, doi: 10.1097/01.hjr.0000238393.96975.32.


Рецензия

Для цитирования:


Голицын С.П., Костюкевич М.В., Лайович Л.Ю., Миронов Н.Ю., Миронова Н.А., Уцумуева М.Д., Хусяинова Д.Р., Шлевков Н.Б., Базаров Б.Ч., Азизов В.А., Джишамбаев Э.Д., Закиров Н.У., Гончарик Д.Б. Евразийские клинические рекомендации по диагностике и лечению желудочковых нарушений ритма сердца и профилактике внезапной сердечной смерти (2022). Евразийский Кардиологический Журнал. 2022;(4):6-67. https://doi.org/10.38109/2225-1685-2022-4-6-67

For citation:


Golitsyn S.P., Kostyukevich M.V., Lajovic L.Yu., Mironov N.Yu., Mironova N.A., Utsumueva M.D., Khusyainova D.R., Shlevkov N.B., Bazarov B.C., Azizov V.A., Dzhishambaev E.D., Zakirov N.U., Goncharik D.B. Eurasian association of cardiology (EAC) guidelines for the prevention and treatment of ventricular heart rhythm disorders and prevention of sudden cardiac death (2022). Eurasian heart journal. 2022;(4):6-67. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.38109/2225-1685-2022-4-6-67

Просмотров: 854


Creative Commons License
Контент доступен под лицензией Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0.


ISSN 2225-1685 (Print)
ISSN 2305-0748 (Online)